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313
Freeform deformation of solid geometric models
 In Proc. SIGGRAPH 86
"... A technique is presented for deforming solid geometric models in a freeform manner. The technique can be used with any solid modeling system, such as CSG or Brep. It can deform surface primitives of any type or degree: planes, quadrics, parametric surface patches, or implicitly defined surfaces, f ..."
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Cited by 579 (1 self)
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A technique is presented for deforming solid geometric models in a freeform manner. The technique can be used with any solid modeling system, such as CSG or Brep. It can deform surface primitives of any type or degree: planes, quadrics, parametric surface patches, or implicitly defined surfaces, for example. The deformation can be applied either globally or locally. Local deformations can be imposed with any desired degree of derivative continuity. It is also possible to deform a solid model in such a way that its volume is preserved. The scheme is based on trivariate Bernstein polynomials, and provides the designer with an intuitive appreciation for its effects.
Polygonization of Implicit Surfaces
, 1988
"... This paper discusses a numerical technique that approximates an implicit surface with a polygonal representation. The implicit function is adaptively sampled as it is surrounded by a spatial partitioning. The partitioning is represented by an octree, which may either converge to the surface or track ..."
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Cited by 373 (3 self)
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This paper discusses a numerical technique that approximates an implicit surface with a polygonal representation. The implicit function is adaptively sampled as it is surrounded by a spatial partitioning. The partitioning is represented by an octree, which may either converge to the surface or track it. A piecewise polygonal representation is derived from the octree.
Data structure for soft objects
 Visual Computer
, 1986
"... We:introduce the concept of soft objects whose shape changes in response to their surroundings. Established geometric modelling techniques exist to handle most engineering components, including 'free form ' shapes such as car bodies and telephones. More recently, there has been a lot of interest in ..."
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Cited by 283 (23 self)
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We:introduce the concept of soft objects whose shape changes in response to their surroundings. Established geometric modelling techniques exist to handle most engineering components, including 'free form ' shapes such as car bodies and telephones. More recently, there has been a lot of interest in modelling natural pheomena such as smoke, clouds, mountains and coastlines where the shapes are described stochastically, or as fractals. None of these techniques lends itself to the description of soft objects. This class of objects includes fabrics, cushions, living forms, mud and water. In this paper, we describe a method of modelling such objects and discuss its uses in animation. Our method is to represent a soft object, or collection of objects, as a surface of constant value in a scalar field over three dimensions. The main technical problem is to avoid calculating the field value at too many points. We do this with a combination of data structures at some cost in internal memory usage.
Using Particles to Sample and Control Implicit Surfaces
, 1994
"... We present a new particlebased approach to sampling and controlling implicit surfaces. A simple constraint locks a set of particles onto a surface while the particles and the surface move. We use the constraint to make surfaces follow particles, and to make particles follow surfaces. We implement c ..."
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Cited by 223 (3 self)
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We present a new particlebased approach to sampling and controlling implicit surfaces. A simple constraint locks a set of particles onto a surface while the particles and the surface move. We use the constraint to make surfaces follow particles, and to make particles follow surfaces. We implement control points for direct manipulation by specifying particle motions, then solving for surface motion that maintains the constraint. For sampling and rendering, we run the constraint in the other direction, creating floater particles that roam freely over the surface. Local repulsion is used to make floaters spread evenly across the surface. By varying the radius of repulsion adaptively, and fissioning or killing particles based on the local density, we can achieve good sampling distributions very rapidly, and maintain them even in the face of rapid and extreme deformations and changes in surface topology. CR Categories: I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling:...
Surface Modeling with Oriented Particle Systems
 Computer Graphics
, 1991
"... Splines and deformable surface models are widely used in computer graphics to describe freeform surfaces. These methods require manual preprocessing to discretize the surface into patches and to specify their connectivity. We present a new model of elastic surfaces based on interacting particle sys ..."
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Cited by 201 (7 self)
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Splines and deformable surface models are widely used in computer graphics to describe freeform surfaces. These methods require manual preprocessing to discretize the surface into patches and to specify their connectivity. We present a new model of elastic surfaces based on interacting particle systems, which, unlike previous techniques, can be used to split, join, or extend surfaces without the need for manual intervention. The particles we use have longrange attraction forces and shortrange repulsion forces and follow Newtonian dynamics, much like recent computational models of fluids and solids. To enable our particles to model surface elements instead of point masses or volume elements, we add an orientation to each particle's state. We devise new interaction potentials for our oriented particles which favor locally planar or spherical arrangements. We also develop techniques for adding new particles automatically, which enables our surfaces to stretch and grow. We demonstrate t...
Multilevel Partition of Unity Implicits
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2003
"... We present a shape representation, the multilevel partition of unity implicit surface, that allows us to construct surface models from very large sets of points. There are three key ingredients to our approach: 1) piecewise quadratic functions that capture the local shape of the surface, 2) weighti ..."
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Cited by 157 (6 self)
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We present a shape representation, the multilevel partition of unity implicit surface, that allows us to construct surface models from very large sets of points. There are three key ingredients to our approach: 1) piecewise quadratic functions that capture the local shape of the surface, 2) weighting functions (the partitions of unity) that blend together these local shape functions, and 3) an octree subdivision method that adapts to variations in the complexity of the local shape.
A survey of shadow algorithms
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1990
"... Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd ..."
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Cited by 123 (3 self)
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Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd shadows, soft shadbws, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives. For each type, we examine shadow algorithms within various rendswing techniques. This survey attempts to provide readem with enough background and insight on the various rmthods to dow them to choose the algorithm best wpuited to their W. We also hope that our analysis will h&p identify the a m that need more research and point bo possible sotutkms. A shadowa region of relative darkness within an not necessarily attenuate the light it occludes. In fact, illuminated regionoccurs when an object totally or it can concentrate light. However, as is traditional in partially occludes the light. A transparent object does image synthesis, lve will consider a region to be in
Guaranteeing the Topology of an Implicit Surface Polygonization for Interactive Modeling
, 1997
"... Morse theory shows how the topology of an implicit surface is affected by its function's critical points, whereas catastrophe theory shows how these critical points behave as the function's parameters change. Interval analysis finds the critical points, and they can also be tracked efficiently durin ..."
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Cited by 98 (9 self)
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Morse theory shows how the topology of an implicit surface is affected by its function's critical points, whereas catastrophe theory shows how these critical points behave as the function's parameters change. Interval analysis finds the critical points, and they can also be tracked efficiently during parameter changes. Changes in the function value at these critical points cause changes in the topology. Techniques for modifying the polygonization to accommodate such changes in topology are given. These techniques are robust enough to guarantee the topology of an implicit surface polygonization, and are efficient enough to maintain this guarantee during interactive modeling. The impact of this work is a topologicallyguaranteed polygonization technique, and the ability to directly and accurately manipulate polygonized implicit surfaces in real time.
Anatomically Based Modeling
, 1997
"... We describe an improved, anatomically based approach to modeling and animating animals. Underlying muscles, bones, and generalized tissue are modeled as triangle meshes or ellipsoids. Muscles are deformable discretized cylinders lying between fixed origins and insertions on specific bones. Default r ..."
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Cited by 96 (6 self)
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We describe an improved, anatomically based approach to modeling and animating animals. Underlying muscles, bones, and generalized tissue are modeled as triangle meshes or ellipsoids. Muscles are deformable discretized cylinders lying between fixed origins and insertions on specific bones. Default rest muscle shapes can be used, or the rest muscle shape can be designed by the user with a small set of parameters. Muscles automatically change shape as the joints move. Skin is generated by voxelizing the underlying components, filtering, and extracting a polygonal isosurface. Isosurface skin vertices are associated with underlying components and move with them during joint motion. Skin motion is consistent with an elastic membrane model. All components are parameterized and can be reused on similar bodies with nonuniformly scaled parts. This parameterization allows a nonuniformly sampled skin to be extracted, maintaining more details at the head and extremities. CR Categories and Subje...
Guaranteed Ray Intersections with Implicit Surfaces
, 1989
"... In this paper, we present a robust and mathematically sound rayintersection algorithm for implicit surfaces. The algorithm is guaranteed to numerically find the nearest intersection of the surface with a ray, and is guaranteed not to miss fine features of the surface. It does not require fine tuni ..."
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Cited by 95 (0 self)
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In this paper, we present a robust and mathematically sound rayintersection algorithm for implicit surfaces. The algorithm is guaranteed to numerically find the nearest intersection of the surface with a ray, and is guaranteed not to miss fine features of the surface. It does not require fine tuning or human choice of interactive parameters. Instead, it requires two upper bounds: "L" that limits the net rate of change of the implicit surface function f(x, y, z) and "G" that limits the rate of change of the gradient. We refer to an implicit surface with these rate limits as an "LGimplicit surface." Existing schemes to intersect a ray with an implicit surface have typically been guaranteed to work only for a limited set of implicit functions, such as quadric surfaces or polynomials, or else have been adhoc and have not been guaranteed to work. Our technique significantly extends the ability to intersect rays with implicit surfaces in a guaranteed fashion.