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Expander Graphs and their Applications
, 2003
"... Contents 1 The Magical Mystery Tour 7 1.1 Some Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.1 Hardness results for linear transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.2 Error Correcting Codes . . . . . . . ..."
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Cited by 188 (5 self)
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Contents 1 The Magical Mystery Tour 7 1.1 Some Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.1 Hardness results for linear transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.2 Error Correcting Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.1.3 Derandomizing Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 Magical Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.2.1 A Super Concentrator with O(n) edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.2.2 Error Correcting Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.2.3 Derandomizing Random Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On the complexity of the parity argument and other inefficient proofs of existence
 JCSS
, 1994
"... We define several new complexity classes of search problems, "between " the classes FP and FNP. These new classes are contained, along with factoring, and the class PLS, in the class TFNP of search problems in FNP that always have a witness. A problem in each of these new classes is defined in terms ..."
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Cited by 155 (8 self)
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We define several new complexity classes of search problems, "between " the classes FP and FNP. These new classes are contained, along with factoring, and the class PLS, in the class TFNP of search problems in FNP that always have a witness. A problem in each of these new classes is defined in terms of an implicitly given, exponentially large graph. The existence of the solution sought is established via a simple graphtheoretic argument with an inefficiently constructive proof; for example, PLS can be thought of as corresponding to the lemma "every dag has a sink. " The new classes are based on lemmata such as "every graph has an even number of odddegree nodes. " They contain several important problems for which no polynomial time algorithm is presently known, including the computational versions of Sperner's lemma, Brouwer's fixpoint theorem, Chfvalley's theorem, and the BorsukUlam theorem, the linear complementarity problem for Pmatrices, finding a mixed equilibrium in a nonzero sum game, finding a second Hamilton circuit in a Hamiltonian cubic graph, a second Hamiltonian decomposition in a quartic graph, and others. Some of these problems are shown to be complete. © 1994 Academic Press, Inc. 1.
Restricted colorings of graphs
 in Surveys in Combinatorics 1993, London Math. Soc. Lecture Notes Series 187
, 1993
"... The problem of properly coloring the vertices (or edges) of a graph using for each vertex (or edge) a color from a prescribed list of permissible colors, received a considerable amount of attention. Here we describe the techniques applied in the study of this subject, which combine combinatorial, al ..."
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Cited by 76 (15 self)
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The problem of properly coloring the vertices (or edges) of a graph using for each vertex (or edge) a color from a prescribed list of permissible colors, received a considerable amount of attention. Here we describe the techniques applied in the study of this subject, which combine combinatorial, algebraic and probabilistic methods, and discuss several intriguing conjectures and open problems. This is mainly a survey of recent and less recent results in the area, but it contains several new results as well.
On the Analysis of Indexing Schemes
 In Proc. 16th ACM SIGACTSIGMODSIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
, 1997
"... We consider the problem of indexing general database workloads (combinations of data sets and sets of potential queries). We define a framework for measuring the efficiency of an indexing scheme for a workload based on two characterizations: storage redundancy (how many times each item in the data s ..."
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Cited by 75 (8 self)
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We consider the problem of indexing general database workloads (combinations of data sets and sets of potential queries). We define a framework for measuring the efficiency of an indexing scheme for a workload based on two characterizations: storage redundancy (how many times each item in the data set is stored), and access overhead (how many times more blocks than necessary does a query retrieve). Using this framework we present some initial results, showing upper and lower bounds and tradeoffs between them in the case of multidimensional range queries and set queries. 1 Introduction The success and ubiquity of the relational data model arguably owes much to the Btree, the access method breakthrough that accompanied it with superb timing [2]. It seems likely that access methods will continue to play an important role in, and largely determine the viability of, the novel data models currently under intense scrutiny in the database research community. The Btree is widely recognized...
Spectral Analysis of Internet Topologies
, 2003
"... We perform spectral analysis of the Internet topology at the AS level, by adapting the standard spectral filtering method of examining the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues of matrices related to the adjacency matrix of the topology. We observe that the method suggests clusters o ..."
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Cited by 74 (6 self)
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We perform spectral analysis of the Internet topology at the AS level, by adapting the standard spectral filtering method of examining the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues of matrices related to the adjacency matrix of the topology. We observe that the method suggests clusters of ASes with natural semantic proximity, such as geography or business interests. We examine how these clustering properties vary in the core and in the edge of the network, as well as across geographic areas, over time, and between real and synthetic data. We observe that these clustering properties may be suggestive of traffic patterns and thus have direct impact on the link stress of the network. Finally, we use the weights of the eigenvector corresponding to the first eigenvalue to obtain an alternative hierarchical ranking of the ASes.
Diversitybased Inference of Finite Automata
 Journal of ACM
, 1994
"... Abstract. We present new procedures for inferring the structure of a finitestate automaton (FSA) from its input \ output behavior, using access to the automaton to perform experiments. Our procedures use a new representation for finite automata, based on the notion of equivalence between tesfs. We ..."
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Cited by 73 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present new procedures for inferring the structure of a finitestate automaton (FSA) from its input \ output behavior, using access to the automaton to perform experiments. Our procedures use a new representation for finite automata, based on the notion of equivalence between tesfs. We call the number of such equivalence classes the diLersL@of the automaton; the diversity may be as small as the logarithm of the number of states of the automaton. For the special class of pennatatton aatornata, we describe an inference procedure that runs in time polynomial in the diversity and log(l/6), where 8 is a given upper bound on the probability that our procedure returns an incorrect result. (Since our procedure uses randomization to perform experiments, there is a certain controllable chance that it will return an erroneous result.) We also discuss techniques for handling more general automata. We present evidence for the practical efficiency of our approach. For example, our procedure is able to infer the structure of an automaton based on Rubik’s Cube (which has approximately 10 lY states) in about 2 minutes on a DEC MicroVax. This automaton is many orders of magnitude larger than possible with previous techniques, which would require time proportional at least to the number of global states. (Note that in this example, only a small fraction (1014, of the global
On the Eigenvalue Power Law
, 2002
"... We show that the largest eigenvalues of graphs whose highest degrees are Zipflike distributed with slope are distributed according to a power law with slope =2. This follows as a direct and almost certain corollary of the degree power law. Our result has implications for the singular value deco ..."
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Cited by 50 (0 self)
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We show that the largest eigenvalues of graphs whose highest degrees are Zipflike distributed with slope are distributed according to a power law with slope =2. This follows as a direct and almost certain corollary of the degree power law. Our result has implications for the singular value decomposition method in information retrieval.
Enumeration of perfect matchings in graphs with reflective symmetry
 J. Combin. Theory Ser. A
, 1997
"... Abstract. A plane graph is called symmetric if it is invariant under the reflection across some straight line. We prove a result that expresses the number of perfect matchings of a large class of symmetric graphs in terms of the product of the number of matchings of two subgraphs. When the graph is ..."
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Cited by 49 (14 self)
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Abstract. A plane graph is called symmetric if it is invariant under the reflection across some straight line. We prove a result that expresses the number of perfect matchings of a large class of symmetric graphs in terms of the product of the number of matchings of two subgraphs. When the graph is also centrally symmetric, the two subgraphs are isomorphic and we obtain a counterpart of Jockusch’s squarishness theorem. As applications of our result, we enumerate the perfect matchings of several families of graphs and we obtain new solutions for the enumeration of two of the ten symmetry classes of plane partitions (namely, transposed complementary and cyclically symmetric, transposed complementary) contained in a given box. Finally, we consider symmetry classes of perfect matchings of the Aztec diamond graph and we solve the previously open problem of enumerating the matchings that are invariant under a rotation by 90 degrees. The starting point of this paper is a result [18, Theorem 1] concerning domino tilings of the Aztec diamond compatible with certain barriers. This result has also been generalized and proved bijectively by Propp [17]. We present (see Lemma 1.1) a further generalization,
Eigenvalues in combinatorial optimization
, 1993
"... In the last decade many important applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of graphs in combinatorial optimization were discovered. The number and importance of these results is so fascinating that it makes sense to present this survey. ..."
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Cited by 42 (0 self)
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In the last decade many important applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of graphs in combinatorial optimization were discovered. The number and importance of these results is so fascinating that it makes sense to present this survey.