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26
Bayesian Density Estimation and Inference Using Mixtures
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1994
"... We describe and illustrate Bayesian inference in models for density estimation using mixtures of Dirichlet processes. These models provide natural settings for density estimation, and are exemplified by special cases where data are modelled as a sample from mixtures of normal distributions. Efficien ..."
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Cited by 521 (18 self)
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We describe and illustrate Bayesian inference in models for density estimation using mixtures of Dirichlet processes. These models provide natural settings for density estimation, and are exemplified by special cases where data are modelled as a sample from mixtures of normal distributions. Efficient simulation methods are used to approximate various prior, posterior and predictive distributions. This allows for direct inference on a variety of practical issues, including problems of local versus global smoothing, uncertainty about density estimates, assessment of modality, and the inference on the numbers of components. Also, convergence results are established for a general class of normal mixture models. Keywords: Kernel estimation; Mixtures of Dirichlet processes; Multimodality; Normal mixtures; Posterior sampling; Smoothing parameter estimation * Michael D. Escobar is Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics and Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, University ...
Gibbs Sampling Methods for StickBreaking Priors
"... ... In this paper we present two general types of Gibbs samplers that can be used to fit posteriors of Bayesian hierarchical models based on stickbreaking priors. The first type of Gibbs sampler, referred to as a Polya urn Gibbs sampler, is a generalized version of a widely used Gibbs sampling meth ..."
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Cited by 285 (17 self)
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... In this paper we present two general types of Gibbs samplers that can be used to fit posteriors of Bayesian hierarchical models based on stickbreaking priors. The first type of Gibbs sampler, referred to as a Polya urn Gibbs sampler, is a generalized version of a widely used Gibbs sampling method currently employed for Dirichlet process computing. This method applies to stickbreaking priors with a known P'olya urn characterization; that is priors with an explicit and simple prediction rule. Our second method, the blocked Gibbs sampler, is based on a entirely different approach that works by directly sampling values from the posterior of the random measure. The blocked Gibbs sampler can be viewed as a more general approach as it works without requiring an explicit prediction rule. We find that the blocked Gibbs avoids some of the limitations seen with the Polya urn approach and should be simpler for nonexperts to use.
Hierarchical Priors and Mixture Models, With Application in Regression and Density Estimation
, 1993
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Generalized weighted Chinese restaurant processes for species sampling mixture models
 Statistica Sinica
, 2003
"... Abstract: The class of species sampling mixture models is introduced as an extension of semiparametric models based on the Dirichlet process to models based on the general class of species sampling priors, or equivalently the class of all exchangeable urn distributions. Using Fubini calculus in conj ..."
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Cited by 72 (9 self)
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Abstract: The class of species sampling mixture models is introduced as an extension of semiparametric models based on the Dirichlet process to models based on the general class of species sampling priors, or equivalently the class of all exchangeable urn distributions. Using Fubini calculus in conjunction with Pitman (1995, 1996), we derive characterizations of the posterior distribution in terms of a posterior partition distribution that extend the results of Lo (1984) for the Dirichlet process. These results provide a better understanding of models and have both theoretical and practical applications. To facilitate the use of our models we generalize the work in Brunner, Chan, James and Lo (2001) by extending their weighted Chinese restaurant (WCR) Monte Carlo procedure, an i.i.d. sequential importance sampling (SIS) procedure for approximating posterior mean functionals based on the Dirichlet process, to the case of approximation of mean functionals and additionally their posterior laws in species sampling mixture models. We also discuss collapsed Gibbs sampling, Pólya urn Gibbs sampling and a Pólya urn SIS scheme. Our framework allows for numerous applications, including multiplicative counting process models subject to weighted gamma processes, as well as nonparametric and semiparametric hierarchical models based on the Dirichlet process, its twoparameter extension, the PitmanYor process and finite dimensional Dirichlet priors. Key words and phrases: Dirichlet process, exchangeable partition, finite dimensional Dirichlet prior, twoparameter PoissonDirichlet process, prediction rule, random probability measure, species sampling sequence.
Dirichlet Prior Sieves in Finite Normal Mixtures
 Statistica Sinica
, 2002
"... Abstract: The use of a finite dimensional Dirichlet prior in the finite normal mixture model has the effect of acting like a Bayesian method of sieves. Posterior consistency is directly related to the dimension of the sieve and the choice of the Dirichlet parameters in the prior. We find that naive ..."
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Cited by 45 (1 self)
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Abstract: The use of a finite dimensional Dirichlet prior in the finite normal mixture model has the effect of acting like a Bayesian method of sieves. Posterior consistency is directly related to the dimension of the sieve and the choice of the Dirichlet parameters in the prior. We find that naive use of the popular uniform Dirichlet prior leads to an inconsistent posterior. However, a simple adjustment to the parameters in the prior induces a random probability measure that approximates the Dirichlet process and yields a posterior that is strongly consistent for the density and weakly consistent for the unknown mixing distribution. The dimension of the resulting sieve can be selected easily in practice and a simple and efficient Gibbs sampler can be used to sample the posterior of the mixing distribution. Key words and phrases: BoseEinstein distribution, Dirichlet process, identification, method of sieves, random probability measure, relative entropy, weak convergence.
Approximate Dirichlet Process Computing in Finite Normal Mixtures: Smoothing and Prior Information
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND GRAPHICAL STATISTICS
, 2000
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Computing Nonparametric Hierarchical Models
, 1998
"... Bayesian models involving Dirichlet process mixtures are at the heart of the modern nonparametric Bayesian movement. Much of the rapid development of these models in the last decade has been a direct result of advances in simulationbased computational methods. Some of the very early work in thi ..."
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Cited by 33 (2 self)
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Bayesian models involving Dirichlet process mixtures are at the heart of the modern nonparametric Bayesian movement. Much of the rapid development of these models in the last decade has been a direct result of advances in simulationbased computational methods. Some of the very early work in this area, circa 19881991, focused on the use of such nonparametric ideas and models in applications of otherwise standard hierarchical models. This chapter provides some historical review and perspective on these developments, with a prime focus on the use and integration of such nonparametric ideas in hierarchical models. We illustrate the ease with which the strict parametric assumptions common to most standard Bayesian hierarchical models can be relaxed to incorporate uncertainties about functional forms using Dirichlet process components, partly enabled by the approach to computation using MCMC methods. The resulting methology is illustrated with two examples taken from an unpub...
Marginal Likelihood and Bayes Factors for Dirichlet Process Mixture Models
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 2003
"... We present a method for comparing semiparametric Bayesian models, constructed under the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) framework, with alternative semiparameteric or parameteric Bayesian models. A distinctive feature of the method is that it can be applied to semiparametric models containing covari ..."
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Cited by 30 (5 self)
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We present a method for comparing semiparametric Bayesian models, constructed under the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) framework, with alternative semiparameteric or parameteric Bayesian models. A distinctive feature of the method is that it can be applied to semiparametric models containing covariates and hierarchical prior structures, and is apparently the rst method of its kind. Formally, the method is based on the marginal likelihood estimation approach of Chib (1995) and requires estimation of the likelihood and posterior ordinates of the DPM model at a single highdensity point. An interesting computation is involved in the estimation of the likelihood ordinate, which is devised via collapsed sequential importance sampling. Extensive experiments with synthetic and real data involving semiparametric binary data regression models and hierarchical longitudinal mixedeffects models are used to illustrate the implementation, performance, and applicability of the method.
Computational Methods for Multiplicative Intensity Models using Weighted Gamma . . .
 PROCESSES: PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS, MARKED POINT PROCESSES AND PANEL COUNT DATA
, 2004
"... We develop computational procedures for a class of Bayesian nonparametric and semiparametric multiplicative intensity models incorporating kernel mixtures of spatial weighted gamma measures. A key feature of our approach is that explicit expressions for posterior distributions of these models share ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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We develop computational procedures for a class of Bayesian nonparametric and semiparametric multiplicative intensity models incorporating kernel mixtures of spatial weighted gamma measures. A key feature of our approach is that explicit expressions for posterior distributions of these models share many common structural features with the posterior distributions of Bayesian hierarchical models using the Dirichlet process. Using this fact, along with an approximation for the weighted gamma process, we show that with some care, one can adapt efficient algorithms used for the Dirichlet process to this setting. We discuss blocked Gibbs sampling procedures and Pólya urn Gibbs samplers. We illustrate our methods with applications to proportional hazard models, Poisson spatial regression models, recurrent events, and panel count data.
A Bayesian semiparametric model for random effects metaanalysis
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
"... In metaanalysis there is an increasing trend to explicitly acknowledge the presence of study variability through random effects models. That is, one assumes that for each study, there is a studyspecific effect and one is observing an estimate of this latent variable. In a random effects model, one ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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In metaanalysis there is an increasing trend to explicitly acknowledge the presence of study variability through random effects models. That is, one assumes that for each study, there is a studyspecific effect and one is observing an estimate of this latent variable. In a random effects model, one assumes that these studyspecific effects come from some distribution, and one can estimate the parameters of this distribution, as well as the studyspecific effects themselves. This distribution is most often modelled through a parametric family, usually a family of normal distributions. The advantage of using a normal distribution is that the mean parameter plays an important role, and much of the focus is on determining whether or not this mean is 0. For example, it may be easier to justify funding further studies if it is determined that this mean is not 0. Typically, this normality assumption is made for the sake of convenience, rather than from some theoretical justification, and may not actually hold. We present a Bayesian model in which the distribution of the studyspecific effects is modelled through a certain class of nonparametric priors. These priors can be designed to concentrate most of their mass around the family of normal