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Term Graph Rewriting
, 1998
"... Term graph rewriting is concerned with the representation of functional expressions as graphs, and the evaluation of these expressions by rulebased graph transformation. Representing expressions as graphs allows to share common subexpressions, improving the efficiency of term rewriting in space ..."
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Cited by 72 (5 self)
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Term graph rewriting is concerned with the representation of functional expressions as graphs, and the evaluation of these expressions by rulebased graph transformation. Representing expressions as graphs allows to share common subexpressions, improving the efficiency of term rewriting in space and time. Besides efficiency, term graph rewriting differs from term rewriting in properties like termination and confluence. This paper is a survey of (acyclic) term graph rewriting, where emphasis is given to the relations between term and term graph rewriting. We focus on soundness of term graph rewriting with respect to term rewriting, on completeness for proving validity of equations and for computing term normal forms, on termination and confluence, and on term graph narrowing. Keywords: term graph rewriting, termination, confluence, term rewriting, narrowing Classification: 68Q05, 68Q40, 68Q42 (AMS '91); D.1.1, F.1.1, F.4.2, I.1.1 (CR '98) Note: This paper will appear in H...
The Tile Model
 PROOF, LANGUAGE AND INTERACTION: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF ROBIN MILNER
, 1996
"... In this paper we introduce a model for a wide class of computational systems, whose behaviour can be described by certain rewriting rules. We gathered our inspiration both from the world of term rewriting, in particular from the rewriting logic framework [Mes92], and of concurrency theory: among the ..."
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Cited by 65 (24 self)
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In this paper we introduce a model for a wide class of computational systems, whose behaviour can be described by certain rewriting rules. We gathered our inspiration both from the world of term rewriting, in particular from the rewriting logic framework [Mes92], and of concurrency theory: among the others, the structured operational semantics [Plo81], the context systems [LX90] and the structured transition systems [CM92] approaches. Our model recollects many properties of these sources: first, it provides a compositional way to describe both the states and the sequences of transitions performed by a given system, stressing their distributed nature. Second, a suitable notion of typed proof allows to take into account also those formalisms relying on the notions of synchronization and sideeffects to determine the actual behaviour of a system. Finally, an equivalence relation over sequences of transitions is defined, equipping the system under analysis with a concurrent semantics, ...
ContextSensitive Rewriting Strategies
, 1997
"... Contextsensitive rewriting is a simple restriction of rewriting which is formalized by imposing fixed restrictions on replacements. Such a restriction is given on a purely syntactic basis: it is (explicitly or automatically) specified on the arguments of symbols of the signature and inductively ..."
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Cited by 43 (30 self)
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Contextsensitive rewriting is a simple restriction of rewriting which is formalized by imposing fixed restrictions on replacements. Such a restriction is given on a purely syntactic basis: it is (explicitly or automatically) specified on the arguments of symbols of the signature and inductively extended to arbitrary positions of terms built from those symbols. Termination is not only preserved but usually improved and several methods have been developed to formally prove it. In this paper, we investigate the definition, properties, and use of contextsensitive rewriting strategies, i.e., particular, fixed sequences of contextsensitive rewriting steps. We study how to define them in order to obtain efficient computations and to ensure that contextsensitive computations terminate whenever possible. We give conditions enabling the use of these strategies for rootnormalization, normalization, and infinitary normalization. We show that this theory is suitable for formalizing ...
An Algebraic Presentation of Term Graphs, via GSMonoidal Categories
 Applied Categorical Structures
, 1999
"... . We present a categorical characterisation of term graphs (i.e., finite, directed acyclic graphs labeled over a signature) that parallels the wellknown characterisation of terms as arrows of the algebraic theory of a given signature (i.e., the free Cartesian category generated by it). In particula ..."
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Cited by 37 (24 self)
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. We present a categorical characterisation of term graphs (i.e., finite, directed acyclic graphs labeled over a signature) that parallels the wellknown characterisation of terms as arrows of the algebraic theory of a given signature (i.e., the free Cartesian category generated by it). In particular, we show that term graphs over a signature \Sigma are onetoone with the arrows of the free gsmonoidal category generated by \Sigma. Such a category satisfies all the axioms for Cartesian categories but for the naturality of two transformations (the discharger ! and the duplicator r), providing in this way an abstract and clear relationship between terms and term graphs. In particular, the absence of the naturality of r and ! has a precise interpretation in terms of explicit sharing and of loss of implicit garbage collection, respectively. Keywords: algebraic theories, directed acyclic graphs, gsmonoidal categories, symmetric monoidal categories, term graphs. Mathematical Subject Clas...
An Inductive View of Graph Transformation
 In Workshop on Algebraic Development Techniques
, 1998
"... . The dynamic behavior of rulebased systems (like term rewriting systems [24], process algebras [27], and so on) can be traditionally determined in two orthogonal ways. Either operationally, in the sense that a way of embedding a rule into a state is devised, stating explicitly how the result i ..."
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Cited by 30 (12 self)
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. The dynamic behavior of rulebased systems (like term rewriting systems [24], process algebras [27], and so on) can be traditionally determined in two orthogonal ways. Either operationally, in the sense that a way of embedding a rule into a state is devised, stating explicitly how the result is built: This is the role played by (the application of) a substitution in term rewriting. Or inductively, showing how to build the class of all possible reductions from a set of basic ones: For term rewriting, this is the usual definition of the rewrite relation as the minimal closure of the rewrite rules. As far as graph transformation is concerned, the operational view is by far more popular: In this paper we lay the basis for the orthogonal view. We first provide an inductive description for graphs as arrows of a freely generated dgsmonoidal category. We then apply 2categorical techniques, already known for term and term graph rewriting [29, 7], recasting in this framework the...
Rewriting On Cyclic Structures: Equivalence Between The Operational And The Categorical Description
, 1999
"... . We present a categorical formulation of the rewriting of possibly cyclic term graphs, based on a variation of algebraic 2theories. We show that this presentation is equivalent to the wellaccepted operational definition proposed by Barendregt et aliibut for the case of circular redexes, fo ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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. We present a categorical formulation of the rewriting of possibly cyclic term graphs, based on a variation of algebraic 2theories. We show that this presentation is equivalent to the wellaccepted operational definition proposed by Barendregt et aliibut for the case of circular redexes, for which we propose (and justify formally) a different treatment. The categorical framework allows us to model in a concise way also automatic garbage collection and rules for sharing/unsharing and folding/unfolding of structures, and to relate term graph rewriting to other rewriting formalisms. R'esum'e. Nous pr'esentons une formulation cat'egorique de la r'e'ecriture des graphes cycliques des termes, bas'ee sur une variante de 2theorie alg'ebrique. Nous prouvons que cette pr'esentation est 'equivalente `a la d'efinition op'erationnelle propos'ee par Barendregt et d'autres auteurs, mais pas dons le cas des radicaux circulaires, pour lesquels nous proposons (et justifions formellem...
CPO models for infinite term rewriting
 in Proc. AMAST'95, LNCS 936
, 1995
"... . Infinite terms in universal algebras are a wellknown topic since the seminal work of the ADJ group [1]. The recent interest in the field of term rewriting (tr) for infinite terms is due to the use of term graph rewriting to implement tr, where terms are represented by graphs: so, a cyclic gra ..."
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Cited by 10 (7 self)
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. Infinite terms in universal algebras are a wellknown topic since the seminal work of the ADJ group [1]. The recent interest in the field of term rewriting (tr) for infinite terms is due to the use of term graph rewriting to implement tr, where terms are represented by graphs: so, a cyclic graph is a finitary description of a possibly infinite term. In this paper we introduce infinite rewriting logic, working on the framework of rewriting logic proposed by Jos'e Meseguer [13, 14]. We provide a simple algebraic presentation of infinite computations, recovering the infinite parallel term rewriting, originally presented by one of the authors ([6]) to extend the classical, settheoretical approach to tr with infinite terms. Moreover, we put all the formalism on firm theoretical bases, providing (for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, for infinitary rewriting systems) a clean algebraic semantics by means of (internal) 2categories. 1 Introduction Term rewriting sy...
CCS Semantics via Proved Transition Systems and Rewriting Logic
 In Kirchner and Kirchner [47
, 1998
"... We consider (a slight variant of) the ccs calculus, and we analyze two operational semantics defined in the literature: the first exploits Proved Transition Systems (pts) and the second Rewriting Logic (rl). We show that the interleaving interpretation of both semantics agree, in that they define th ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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We consider (a slight variant of) the ccs calculus, and we analyze two operational semantics defined in the literature: the first exploits Proved Transition Systems (pts) and the second Rewriting Logic (rl). We show that the interleaving interpretation of both semantics agree, in that they define the same transitions and exhibit the same nondeterministic structure. In addition, we study causality in ccs computations. We recall the treatment via pts, that exhibits the notion of causality presented in the literature, and we show how to recast it in the rl semantics via suitable axioms. 1 Introduction Concurrency is maybe the basic aspect of the operational interpretation of rewriting logic. And as Jos'e Meseguer says in his lecture at concur'96 [20], . . . my main emphasis in this talk will be on rewriting logic as a semantic framework for concurrency. . . . The goal is . . . to express as faithfully as possible each model [of concurrency] on its own terms, avoiding any encodings or tr...
A Causal Semantics for CCS via Rewriting Logic
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2000
"... We consider two operational semantics for ccs dened in the literature: the rst exploits Proved Transition Systems (pts) and the second Rewriting Logic (rl). We show that the interleaving interpretation of both semantics agree, in that they dene the same transitions and exhibit the same nondeterminis ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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We consider two operational semantics for ccs dened in the literature: the rst exploits Proved Transition Systems (pts) and the second Rewriting Logic (rl). We show that the interleaving interpretation of both semantics agree, in that they dene the same transitions and exhibit the same nondeterministic structure. In addition, we study causality in ccs computations. We recall its treatment via pts, exhibiting the notion of causality presented in the literature, and we show how to recast it in the rl semantics via suitable axioms. Also in this case, the two semantics agree. Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Some notions on Process Algebras 3 2.1 The Calculus of Communicating Systems 4 2.2 Proved Transition System 6 2.3 Causality and Concurrency 7 ? Research partly supported by the Italian CNR Progetto Strategico Modelli e Metodi per la Matematica e l'Ingegneria and MURST Progetto Tecniche Formali per la Specica, l'Analisi, la Verica, la Sintesi e la Trasformazione di Sistemi Software. ...
Subobject Transformation Systems
, 2008
"... Subobject transformation systems (STS) are proposed as a novel formal framework for the analysis of derivations of transformation systems based on the algebraic, doublepushout (DPO) approach. They can be considered as a simplified variant of DPO rewriting, acting in the distributive lattice of subo ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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Subobject transformation systems (STS) are proposed as a novel formal framework for the analysis of derivations of transformation systems based on the algebraic, doublepushout (DPO) approach. They can be considered as a simplified variant of DPO rewriting, acting in the distributive lattice of subobjects of a given object of an adhesive category. This setting allows a direct analysis of all possible notions of dependency between any two productions without requiring an explicit match. In particular, several equivalent characterizations of independence of productions are proposed, as well as a local Church–Rosser theorem in the setting of STS. Finally, we show how any derivation tree in an ordinary DPO grammar leads to an STS via a suitable construction and show that relational reasoning in the resulting STS is sound and complete with respect to the independence in the original derivation tree.