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Parallel Algorithms for Integer Factorisation
"... The problem of finding the prime factors of large composite numbers has always been of mathematical interest. With the advent of public key cryptosystems it is also of practical importance, because the security of some of these cryptosystems, such as the RivestShamirAdelman (RSA) system, depends o ..."
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Cited by 41 (17 self)
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The problem of finding the prime factors of large composite numbers has always been of mathematical interest. With the advent of public key cryptosystems it is also of practical importance, because the security of some of these cryptosystems, such as the RivestShamirAdelman (RSA) system, depends on the difficulty of factoring the public keys. In recent years the best known integer factorisation algorithms have improved greatly, to the point where it is now easy to factor a 60decimal digit number, and possible to factor numbers larger than 120 decimal digits, given the availability of enough computing power. We describe several algorithms, including the elliptic curve method (ECM), and the multiplepolynomial quadratic sieve (MPQS) algorithm, and discuss their parallel implementation. It turns out that some of the algorithms are very well suited to parallel implementation. Doubling the degree of parallelism (i.e. the amount of hardware devoted to the problem) roughly increases the size of a number which can be factored in a fixed time by 3 decimal digits. Some recent computational results are mentioned – for example, the complete factorisation of the 617decimal digit Fermat number F11 = 2211 + 1 which was accomplished using ECM.
Theory and applications of the doublebase number system
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 1999
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Recent progress and prospects for integer factorisation algorithms
 In Proc. of COCOON 2000
, 2000
"... Abstract. The integer factorisation and discrete logarithm problems are of practical importance because of the widespread use of public key cryptosystems whose security depends on the presumed difficulty of solving these problems. This paper considers primarily the integer factorisation problem. In ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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Abstract. The integer factorisation and discrete logarithm problems are of practical importance because of the widespread use of public key cryptosystems whose security depends on the presumed difficulty of solving these problems. This paper considers primarily the integer factorisation problem. In recent years the limits of the best integer factorisation algorithms have been extended greatly, due in part to Moore’s law and in part to algorithmic improvements. It is now routine to factor 100decimal digit numbers, and feasible to factor numbers of 155 decimal digits (512 bits). We outline several integer factorisation algorithms, consider their suitability for implementation on parallel machines, and give examples of their current capabilities. In particular, we consider the problem of parallel solution of the large, sparse linear systems which arise with the MPQS and NFS methods. 1
Factorization of the tenth and eleventh Fermat numbers
, 1996
"... . We describe the complete factorization of the tenth and eleventh Fermat numbers. The tenth Fermat number is a product of four prime factors with 8, 10, 40 and 252 decimal digits. The eleventh Fermat number is a product of five prime factors with 6, 6, 21, 22 and 564 decimal digits. We also note a ..."
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Cited by 17 (8 self)
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. We describe the complete factorization of the tenth and eleventh Fermat numbers. The tenth Fermat number is a product of four prime factors with 8, 10, 40 and 252 decimal digits. The eleventh Fermat number is a product of five prime factors with 6, 6, 21, 22 and 564 decimal digits. We also note a new 27decimal digit factor of the thirteenth Fermat number. This number has four known prime factors and a 2391decimal digit composite factor. All the new factors reported here were found by the elliptic curve method (ECM). The 40digit factor of the tenth Fermat number was found after about 140 Mflopyears of computation. We discuss aspects of the practical implementation of ECM, including the use of specialpurpose hardware, and note several other large factors found recently by ECM. 1. Introduction For a nonnegative integer n, the nth Fermat number is F n = 2 2 n + 1. It is known that F n is prime for 0 n 4, and composite for 5 n 23. Also, for n 2, the factors of F n are of th...
Abstract
"... We compare implementations of two integer factorisation algorithms, the elliptic curve method (ECM) and a variant of the Pollard “rho ” method, on three machines (the Fujitsu AP1000, VP2200 and VPP500) with parallel and/or vector architectures. ECM is scalable and well suited for both vector and par ..."
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We compare implementations of two integer factorisation algorithms, the elliptic curve method (ECM) and a variant of the Pollard “rho ” method, on three machines (the Fujitsu AP1000, VP2200 and VPP500) with parallel and/or vector architectures. ECM is scalable and well suited for both vector and parallel architectures. 1
A New World Record for the Special Number Field Sieve Factoring Method
, 1997
"... 25> f(a=b) and of a=b\Gammam are both smooth, meaning that only small prime factors divide these numerators. These are more likely to be smooth when 1 We assume the reader to be familiar with this factoring method, although no expert knowledge is required to understand the spirit of this announ ..."
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25> f(a=b) and of a=b\Gammam are both smooth, meaning that only small prime factors divide these numerators. These are more likely to be smooth when 1 We assume the reader to be familiar with this factoring method, although no expert knowledge is required to understand the spirit of this announcement. 2 NFSNET is a collaborative effort to factor numbers by the Number Field Sieve. It relies on volunteers from around the world who contribute the "spare time" of a large number of workstations to perform the sieving. In addition to completing work on other numbers, their 75 workstations sieved (3 349 \Gamma 1)=2 during the months of December 1996 and January 1997. The organizers and principal researchers of NFSNET are: Marije ElkenbrachtHuizing, Peter Montgomery, Bob Silverman, Richard Wackerbarth, and Sam Wagstaff, Jr. 1. the polynomial values themselves are