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23
Translating Dependency into Parametricity
 In: ACM International Conference on Functional Programming
"... Abadi et al. introduced the dependency core calculus (DCC) as a unifying framework to study many important program analyses such as binding time, information flow, slicing, and function call tracking. DCC uses a lattice of monads and a nonstandard typing rule for their associated bind operations to ..."
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Cited by 26 (3 self)
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Abadi et al. introduced the dependency core calculus (DCC) as a unifying framework to study many important program analyses such as binding time, information flow, slicing, and function call tracking. DCC uses a lattice of monads and a nonstandard typing rule for their associated bind operations to describe the dependency of computations in a program. Abadi et al. proved a noninterference theorem that establishes the correctness of DCC’s type system and thus the correctness of the type systems for the analyses above. In this paper, we study the relationship between DCC and the GirardReynolds polymorphic lambda calculus (System F). We encode the recursionfree fragment of DCC into F via a typedirected translation. Our main theoretical result is that, following from the correctness of the translation, the parametricity theorem for F implies the noninterference theorem for DCC. In addition, the translation provides insights into DCC’s type system and suggests implementation strategies of dependency calculi in polymorphic languages.
Fast and Loose Reasoning is Morally Correct
, 2006
"... Functional programmers often reason about programs as if they were written in a total language, expecting the results to carry over to nontotal (partial) languages. We justify such reasoning. ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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Functional programmers often reason about programs as if they were written in a total language, expecting the results to carry over to nontotal (partial) languages. We justify such reasoning.
The Impact of seq on Free TheoremsBased Program Transformations
 Fundamenta Informaticae
, 2006
"... Parametric polymorphism constrains the behavior of pure functional programs in a way that allows the derivation of interesting theorems about them solely from their types, i.e., virtually for free. Unfortunately, standard parametricity results — including socalled free theorems — fail for nonstrict ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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Parametric polymorphism constrains the behavior of pure functional programs in a way that allows the derivation of interesting theorems about them solely from their types, i.e., virtually for free. Unfortunately, standard parametricity results — including socalled free theorems — fail for nonstrict languages supporting a polymorphic strict evaluation primitive such as Haskell’s seq. A folk theorem maintains that such results hold for a subset of Haskell corresponding to a GirardReynolds calculus with fixpoints and algebraic datatypes even when seq is present provided the relations which appear in their derivations are required to be bottomreflecting and admissible. In this paper we show that this folklore is incorrect, but that parametricity results can be recovered in the presence of seq by restricting attention to leftclosed, total, and admissible relations instead. The key novelty of our approach is the asymmetry introduced by leftclosedness, which leads to “inequational” versions of standard parametricity results together with preconditions guaranteeing their validity even when seq is present. We use these results to derive criteria ensuring that both equational and inequational versions of short cut fusion and related program transformations based on free theorems hold in the presence of seq.
Chasing bottoms: A case study in program verification in the presence of partial and infinite values
 In MPC 2004, volume 3125 of LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. This work is a case study in program verification: We have written a simple parser and a corresponding prettyprinter in a nonstrict functional programming language with lifted pairs and functions (Haskell). A natural aim is to prove that the programs are, in some sense, each other’s inver ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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Abstract. This work is a case study in program verification: We have written a simple parser and a corresponding prettyprinter in a nonstrict functional programming language with lifted pairs and functions (Haskell). A natural aim is to prove that the programs are, in some sense, each other’s inverses. The presence of partial and infinite values in the domains makes this exercise interesting, and having lifted types adds an extra spice to the task. We have tackled the problem in different ways, and this is a report on the merits of those approaches. More specifically, we first describe a method for testing properties of programs in the presence of partial and infinite values. By testing before proving we avoid wasting time trying to prove statements that are not valid. Then we prove that the programs we have written are in fact (more or less) inverses using first fixpoint induction and then the approximation lemma. 1
Free theorems and runtime type representations
 Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2007
"... Abstract. Reynolds ’ abstraction theorem [21], often referred to as the parametricity theorem, can be used to derive properties about functional programs solely from their types. Unfortunately, in the presence of runtime type analysis, the abstraction properties of polymorphic programs are no longer ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Abstract. Reynolds ’ abstraction theorem [21], often referred to as the parametricity theorem, can be used to derive properties about functional programs solely from their types. Unfortunately, in the presence of runtime type analysis, the abstraction properties of polymorphic programs are no longer valid. However, runtime type analysis can be implemented with termlevel representations of types, as in the λR language of Crary et al. [10], where case analysis on these runtime representations introduces type refinement. In this paper, we show that representationbased analysis is consistent with type abstraction by extending the abstraction theorem to such a language. We also discuss the “free theorems” that result. This work provides a foundation for the more general problem of extending the abstraction theorem to languages with generalized algebraic datatypes (gadts). 1
Proving correctness via free theorems: The case of the destroy/buildrule
 IN PARTIAL EVALUATION AND PROGRAM MANIPULATION, PROCEEDINGS
, 2008
"... Free theorems feature prominently in the field of program transformation for pure functional languages such as Haskell. However, somewhat disappointingly, the semantic properties of so based transformations are often established only very superficially. This paper is intended as a case study showing ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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Free theorems feature prominently in the field of program transformation for pure functional languages such as Haskell. However, somewhat disappointingly, the semantic properties of so based transformations are often established only very superficially. This paper is intended as a case study showing how to use the existing theoretical foundations and formal methods for improving the situation. To that end, we investigate the correctness issue for a new transformation rule in the short cut fusion family. This destroy/buildrule provides a certain reconciliation between the competing foldr/build and destroy/unfoldrapproaches to eliminating intermediate lists. Our emphasis is on systematically and rigorously developing the rule’s correctness proof, even while paying attention to semantic aspects like potential nontermination and mixed strict/nonstrict evaluation.
A family of syntactic logical relations for the semantics of Haskelllike languages
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 2009
"... Logical relations are a fundamental and powerful tool for reasoning about programs in languages with parametric polymorphism. Logical relations suitable for reasoning about observational behavior in polymorphic calculi supporting various programming language features have been introduced in recent y ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Logical relations are a fundamental and powerful tool for reasoning about programs in languages with parametric polymorphism. Logical relations suitable for reasoning about observational behavior in polymorphic calculi supporting various programming language features have been introduced in recent years. Unfortunately, the calculi studied are typically idealized, and the results obtained for them offer only partial insight into the impact of such features on observational behavior in implemented languages. In this paper we show how to bring reasoning via logical relations closer to bear on real languages by deriving results that are more pertinent to an intermediate language for the (mostly) lazy functional language Haskell like GHC Core. To provide a more finegrained analysis of program behavior than is possible by reasoning about program equivalence alone, we work with an abstract notion of relating observational behavior of computations which has among its specializations both observational equivalence and observational approximation. We take selective strictness into account, and we consider the impact of different kinds of
Taming Selective Strictness
"... Abstract: Free theorems establish interesting properties of parametrically polymorphic functions, solely from their types, and serve as a nice proof tool. For pure and lazy functional programming languages, they can be used with very few preconditions. Unfortunately, in the presence of selective str ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Abstract: Free theorems establish interesting properties of parametrically polymorphic functions, solely from their types, and serve as a nice proof tool. For pure and lazy functional programming languages, they can be used with very few preconditions. Unfortunately, in the presence of selective strictness, as provided in languages like Haskell, their original strength is reduced. In this paper we present an approach for restrengthening them. By a refined type system which tracks the use of strict evaluation, we rule out unnecessary restrictions that otherwise emerge from the general suspicion that strict evaluation may be used at any point. Additionally, we provide an implemented algorithm determining all refined types for a given term. 1
Parametricity for Haskell with Imprecise Error Semantics
"... Types play an important role both in reasoning about Haskell and for its implementation. For example, the Glasgow Haskell Compiler performs certain fusion transformations that are intended to improve program efficiency and whose semantic justification is derived from polymorphic function types. At t ..."
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Cited by 4 (4 self)
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Types play an important role both in reasoning about Haskell and for its implementation. For example, the Glasgow Haskell Compiler performs certain fusion transformations that are intended to improve program efficiency and whose semantic justification is derived from polymorphic function types. At the same time, GHC adopts a scheme of error raising, propagation, and handling which is nondeterministic in the sense that there is some freedom as to which of a number of potential failure events hidden somewhere in a program is actually triggered. Implemented for good pragmatic reasons, this scheme complicates the meaning of programs and thus necessitates extra care when reasoning about them. In particular, since every erroneous value now represents a whole set of potential (but not arbitrary) failure causes, and since the associated propagation rules are askew to standard notions of program flow and value dependence, some standard laws suddenly fail to hold. This includes laws derived from polymorphic types, popularized as free theorems and at the base of the mentioned kind of fusion. We study this interaction between typebased reasoning and imprecise errors by revising and extending the foundational notion of relational parametricity, as well as further material required to make it applicable. More generally, we believe that our development and proofs help direct the way for incorporating further and other extensions and semantic features that deviate from the “naive ” setting in which reasoning about Haskell programs often takes place.
Free Theorems for Functional Logic Programs
 SUBMITTED TO PLPV’10
, 2010
"... Typebased reasoning is popular in functional programming. In particular, parametric polymorphism constrains functions in such a way that statements about their behavior can be derived without consulting function definitions. Is the same possible in a strongly, and polymorphically, typed functional ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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Typebased reasoning is popular in functional programming. In particular, parametric polymorphism constrains functions in such a way that statements about their behavior can be derived without consulting function definitions. Is the same possible in a strongly, and polymorphically, typed functional logic language? This is the question we study in this paper. Logical features like nondeterminism and free variables cause interesting effects, which we examine based on examples and address by identifying appropriate conditions that guarantee standard free theorems or inequational versions thereof to hold.