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20
Statedependent representation independence
 In Proceedings of the 36th ACM SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2009
"... Mitchell’s notion of representation independence is a particularly useful application of Reynolds ’ relational parametricity — two different implementations of an abstract data type can be shown contextually equivalent so long as there exists a relation between their type representations that is pre ..."
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Cited by 63 (19 self)
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Mitchell’s notion of representation independence is a particularly useful application of Reynolds ’ relational parametricity — two different implementations of an abstract data type can be shown contextually equivalent so long as there exists a relation between their type representations that is preserved by their operations. There have been a number of methods proposed for proving representation independence in various pure extensions of System F (where data abstraction is achieved through existential typing), as well as in Algol or Javalike languages (where data abstraction is achieved through the use of local mutable state). However, none of these approaches addresses the interaction of existential type abstraction and local state. In particular, none allows one to prove representation independence results for generative ADTs — i.e., ADTs that both maintain some local state and define abstract types whose internal
A bisimulation for type abstraction and recursion
 SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 2005
"... We present a bisimulation method for proving the contextual equivalence of packages in λcalculus with full existential and recursive types. Unlike traditional logical relations (either semantic or syntactic), our development is “elementary, ” using only sets and relations and avoiding advanced mach ..."
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Cited by 47 (4 self)
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We present a bisimulation method for proving the contextual equivalence of packages in λcalculus with full existential and recursive types. Unlike traditional logical relations (either semantic or syntactic), our development is “elementary, ” using only sets and relations and avoiding advanced machinery such as domain theory, admissibility, and ⊤⊤closure. Unlike other bisimulations, ours is complete even for existential types. The key idea is to consider sets of relations—instead of just relations—as bisimulations.
Realizability semantics of parametric polymorphism, general references, and recursive types
, 2010
"... Abstract. We present a realizability model for a callbyvalue, higherorder programming language with parametric polymorphism, general firstclass references, and recursive types. The main novelty is a relational interpretation of open types (as needed for parametricity reasoning) that include gener ..."
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Cited by 19 (12 self)
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Abstract. We present a realizability model for a callbyvalue, higherorder programming language with parametric polymorphism, general firstclass references, and recursive types. The main novelty is a relational interpretation of open types (as needed for parametricity reasoning) that include general reference types. The interpretation uses a new approach to modeling references. The universe of semantic types consists of worldindexed families of logical relations over a universal predomain. In order to model general reference types, worlds are finite maps from locations to semantic types: this introduces a circularity between semantic types and worlds that precludes a direct definition of either. Our solution is to solve a recursive equation in an appropriate category of metric spaces. In effect, types are interpreted using a Kripke logical relation over a recursively defined set of worlds. We illustrate how the model can be used to prove simple equivalences between different implementations of imperative abstract data types. 1
Stepindexed Kripke models over recursive worlds
 In Proc. of POPL
, 2011
"... Over the last decade, there has been extensive research on modelling challenging features in programming languages and program logics, such as higherorder store and storable resource invariants. A recent line of work has identified a common solution to some of these challenges: Kripke models over w ..."
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Cited by 19 (10 self)
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Over the last decade, there has been extensive research on modelling challenging features in programming languages and program logics, such as higherorder store and storable resource invariants. A recent line of work has identified a common solution to some of these challenges: Kripke models over worlds that are recursively defined in a category of metric spaces. In this paper, we broaden the scope of this technique from the original domaintheoretic setting to an elementary, operational one based on step indexing. The resulting method is widely applicable and leads to simple, succinct models of complicated language features, as we demonstrate in our semantics of Charguéraud and Pottier’s typeandcapability system for an MLlike higherorder language. Moreover, the method provides a highlevel understanding of the essence of recent approaches based on step indexing. 1.
Logical StepIndexed Logical Relations
"... We show how to reason about “stepindexed ” logical relations in an abstract way, avoiding the tedious, errorprone, and proofobscuring stepindex arithmetic that seems superficially to be an essential element of the method. Specifically, we define a logic LSLR, which is inspired by Plotkin and Aba ..."
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Cited by 15 (6 self)
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We show how to reason about “stepindexed ” logical relations in an abstract way, avoiding the tedious, errorprone, and proofobscuring stepindex arithmetic that seems superficially to be an essential element of the method. Specifically, we define a logic LSLR, which is inspired by Plotkin and Abadi’s logic for parametricity, but also supports recursively defined relations by means of the modal “later ” operator from Appel et al.’s “very modal model” paper. We encode in LSLR a logical relation for reasoning (in)equationally about programs in callbyvalue System F extended with recursive types. Using this logical relation, we derive a useful set of rules with which we can prove contextual (in)equivalences without mentioning step indices. 1
Nonparametric Parametricity
 UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR PUBLICATION IN J. FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING
, 2010
"... Type abstraction and intensional type analysis are features seemingly at odds—type abstraction is intended to guarantee parametricity and representation independence, while type analysis is inherently nonparametric. Recently, however, several researchers have proposed and implemented “dynamic type, ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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Type abstraction and intensional type analysis are features seemingly at odds—type abstraction is intended to guarantee parametricity and representation independence, while type analysis is inherently nonparametric. Recently, however, several researchers have proposed and implemented “dynamic type, one should also be able to generate at run time a fresh type name, which may be used as a dynamic representative of the abstract type for purposes of type analysis. The question remains: in a language with nonparametric polymorphism, does dynamic type generation provide us with the same kinds of abstraction guarantees that we get from parametric polymorphism? Our goal is to provide a rigorous answer to this question. We define a stepindexed Kripke logical relation for a language with both nonparametric polymorphism (in the form of typesafe cast) and dynamic type generation. Our logical relation enables us to establish parametricity and representation independence results, even in a nonparametric setting, by attaching arbitrary relational interpretations to dynamicallygenerated type names. In addition, we explore how programs that are provably equivalent in a more traditional parametric logical relation may be “wrapped” systematically to produce terms that are related by our nonparametric relation, and vice versa. This leads us to a novel “polarized” form of our logical relation, which enables us to distinguish formally between positive and negative notions of parametricity.
Relational parametricity for references and recursive types
 In Proceedings Fourth ACM Workshop on Types in Language Design and Implementation, TLDI’09
, 2009
"... We present a possible world semantics for a callbyvalue higherorder programming language with impredicative polymorphism, general references, and recursive types. The model is one of the first relationally parametric models of a programming language with all these features. To model impredicative ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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We present a possible world semantics for a callbyvalue higherorder programming language with impredicative polymorphism, general references, and recursive types. The model is one of the first relationally parametric models of a programming language with all these features. To model impredicative polymorphism we define the semantics of types via parameterized (worldindexed) logical relations over a universal domain. It is wellknown that it is nontrivial to show the existence of logical relations in the presence of recursive types. Here the problems are exacerbated because of general references. We explain what the problems are and present our solution, which makes use of a novel approach to modeling references. We prove that the resulting semantics is adequate with respect to a standard operational semantics and include simple examples of reasoning about contextual equivalence via parametricity.
Free theorems and runtime type representations
 Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2007
"... Abstract. Reynolds ’ abstraction theorem [21], often referred to as the parametricity theorem, can be used to derive properties about functional programs solely from their types. Unfortunately, in the presence of runtime type analysis, the abstraction properties of polymorphic programs are no longer ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Abstract. Reynolds ’ abstraction theorem [21], often referred to as the parametricity theorem, can be used to derive properties about functional programs solely from their types. Unfortunately, in the presence of runtime type analysis, the abstraction properties of polymorphic programs are no longer valid. However, runtime type analysis can be implemented with termlevel representations of types, as in the λR language of Crary et al. [10], where case analysis on these runtime representations introduces type refinement. In this paper, we show that representationbased analysis is consistent with type abstraction by extending the abstraction theorem to such a language. We also discuss the “free theorems” that result. This work provides a foundation for the more general problem of extending the abstraction theorem to languages with generalized algebraic datatypes (gadts). 1
Semantic foundations for typed assembly languages
 Prog. Languages and Systems (TOPLAS
, 2008
"... Typed Assembly Languages (TALs) are used to validate the safety of machinelanguage programs. The Foundational ProofCarrying Code project seeks to verify the soundness of TALs using the smallest possible set of axioms—the axioms of a suitably expressive logic plus a specification of machine semanti ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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Typed Assembly Languages (TALs) are used to validate the safety of machinelanguage programs. The Foundational ProofCarrying Code project seeks to verify the soundness of TALs using the smallest possible set of axioms—the axioms of a suitably expressive logic plus a specification of machine semantics. This paper proposes general semantic foundations that permit modular proofs of the soundness of TALs. These semantic foundations include Typed Machine Language (TML), a type theory for specifying properties of lowlevel data with powerful and orthogonal type constructors, and Lc, a compositional logic for specifying properties of machine instructions with simplified reasoning about unstructured control flow. Both of these components, whose semantics we specify using higherorder logic, are useful for proving the soundness of TALs. We demonstrate this by using TML and Lc to verify the soundness of a lowlevel, typed assembly language, LTAL, which is the target of our coreMLtosparc compiler. To prove the soundness of the TML type system we have successfully applied a new approach, that of stepindexed logical relations. This approach provides the first semantic model for a type system with updatable references to values of impredicative quantified types. Both impredicative polymorphism and mutable references are essential when representing function closures in compilers with typed closure conversion, or when compiling objects to simpler typed primitives.
Monads in Action
"... In functional programming, monadic characterizations of computational effects are normally understood denotationally: they describe how an effectful program can be systematically expanded or translated into a larger, pure program, which can then be evaluated according to an effectfree semantics. An ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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In functional programming, monadic characterizations of computational effects are normally understood denotationally: they describe how an effectful program can be systematically expanded or translated into a larger, pure program, which can then be evaluated according to an effectfree semantics. Any effectspecific operations expressible in the monad are also given purely functional definitions, but these definitions are only directly executable in the context of an already translated program. This approach thus takes an inherently Churchstyle view of effects: the nominal meaning of every effectful term in the program depends crucially on its type. We present here a complementary, operational view of monadic effects, in which an effect definition directly induces an imperative behavior of the new operations expressible in the monad. This behavior is formalized as additional operational rules for only the new constructs; it does not require any structural changes to the evaluation judgment. Specifically, we give a smallstep operational semantics of a prototypical functional language supporting programmerdefinable, layered effects, and show how this semantics naturally supports reasoning by familiar syntactic techniques, such as showing soundness of a Currystyle effecttype system by the progress+preservation method.