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A Bayesian method for the induction of probabilistic networks from data
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1992
"... This paper presents a Bayesian method for constructing probabilistic networks from databases. In particular, we focus on constructing Bayesian belief networks. Potential applications include computerassisted hypothesis testing, automated scientific discovery, and automated construction of probabili ..."
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Cited by 1140 (28 self)
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This paper presents a Bayesian method for constructing probabilistic networks from databases. In particular, we focus on constructing Bayesian belief networks. Potential applications include computerassisted hypothesis testing, automated scientific discovery, and automated construction of probabilistic expert systems. We extend the basic method to handle missing data and hidden (latent) variables. We show how to perform probabilistic inference by averaging over the inferences of multiple belief networks. Results are presented of a preliminary evaluation of an algorithm for constructing a belief network from a database of cases. Finally, we relate the methods in this paper to previous work, and we discuss open problems.
Adaptive Probabilistic Networks with Hidden Variables
 Machine Learning
, 1997
"... . Probabilistic networks (also known as Bayesian belief networks) allow a compact description of complex stochastic relationships among several random variables. They are rapidly becoming the tool of choice for uncertain reasoning in artificial intelligence. In this paper, we investigate the problem ..."
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Cited by 162 (10 self)
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. Probabilistic networks (also known as Bayesian belief networks) allow a compact description of complex stochastic relationships among several random variables. They are rapidly becoming the tool of choice for uncertain reasoning in artificial intelligence. In this paper, we investigate the problem of learning probabilistic networks with known structure and hidden variables. This is an important problem, because structure is much easier to elicit from experts than numbers, and the world is rarely fully observable. We present a gradientbased algorithmand show that the gradient can be computed locally, using information that is available as a byproduct of standard probabilistic network inference algorithms. Our experimental results demonstrate that using prior knowledge about the structure, even with hidden variables, can significantly improve the learning rate of probabilistic networks. We extend the method to networks in which the conditional probability tables are described using a ...
Local Learning in Probabilistic Networks With Hidden Variables
, 1995
"... Probabilistic networks, which provide compact descriptions of complex stochastic relationships among several random variables, are rapidly becoming the tool of choice for uncertain reasoning in artificial intelligence. We show that networks with fixed structure containing hidden variables can be lea ..."
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Cited by 81 (5 self)
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Probabilistic networks, which provide compact descriptions of complex stochastic relationships among several random variables, are rapidly becoming the tool of choice for uncertain reasoning in artificial intelligence. We show that networks with fixed structure containing hidden variables can be learned automatically from data using a gradientdescent mechanism similar to that used in neural networks. We also extend the method to networks with intensionally represented distributions, including networks with continuous variables and dynamic probabilistic networks. Because probabilistic networks provide explicit representations of causal structure, human experts can easily contribute prior knowledge to the training process, thereby significantly improving the learning rate. Adaptive probabilistic networks (APNs) may soon compete directly with neural networks as models in computational neuroscience as well as in industrial and financial applications. 1 Introduction Intelligent systems, ...
Challenge: Where is the Impact of Bayesian Networks in Learning?
 In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... Bayesian networks are graphical representations of probability distributions. Over the last decade, these representations have become the method of choice for representation of uncertainly in artificial intelligence. Today, they play a crucial role in modern expert systems, diagnosis engines, and de ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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Bayesian networks are graphical representations of probability distributions. Over the last decade, these representations have become the method of choice for representation of uncertainly in artificial intelligence. Today, they play a crucial role in modern expert systems, diagnosis engines, and decision support systems. In recent years, there has been much interest in learning Bayesian networks from data. Learning such models is desirable simply because there is a wide array of offtheshelf tools that can apply the learned models as described above. Practitioners also claim that adaptive Bayesian networks have advantages in their own right as a nonparametric method for density estimation, data analysis, pattern classification, and modeling. Among the reasons cited we find: their semantic clarity and understandability by humans, the ease of acquisition and incorporation of prior knowledge, the ease of integration with optimal decisionmaking methods, the possibility of causal interp...
A Bayesian Network Approach to the Selforganization and Learning in Intelligent Agents
, 2000
"... A Bayesian network approach to selforganization and learning is introduced for use with intelligent agents. Bayesian networks, with the help of influence diagrams, are employed to create a decisiontheoretic intelligent agent. Influence diagrams combine both Bayesian networks and utility theory. In ..."
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A Bayesian network approach to selforganization and learning is introduced for use with intelligent agents. Bayesian networks, with the help of influence diagrams, are employed to create a decisiontheoretic intelligent agent. Influence diagrams combine both Bayesian networks and utility theory. In this research, an intelligent agent is modeled by its belief, preference, and capabilities attributes. Each agent is assumed to have its own belief about its environment. The belief aspect of the intelligent agent is accomplished by a Bayesian network. The goal of an intelligent agent is said to be the preference of the agent and is represented with a utility function in the decision theoretic intelligent agent. Capabilities are represented with a set of possible actions of the decisiontheoretic intelligent agent. Influence diagrams have utility nodes and decision nodes to handle the preference and capabilities of the decisiontheoretic intelligent agent, respectively.
On a Deficiency of the FCI Algorithm Learning Bayesian Networks from Data
"... Causally insufficient structures (models with latent or hidden variables, or with confounding etc.) of joint probability distributions have been subject of intense study not only in statistics, but also in various AI systems. In AI, belief networks, being representations of joint probability distr ..."
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Causally insufficient structures (models with latent or hidden variables, or with confounding etc.) of joint probability distributions have been subject of intense study not only in statistics, but also in various AI systems. In AI, belief networks, being representations of joint probability distribution with an underlying directed acyclic graph structure, are paid special attention due to the fact that efficient reasoning (uncertainty propagation) methods have been developed for belief network structures. Algorithms have been therefore developed to acquire the belief network structure from data. As artifacts due to variable hiding negatively influence the performance of derived belief networks, models with latent variables have been studied and several algorithms for learning belief network structure under causal insufficiency have also been developed. Regrettably, some of them are known already to be erroneous (e.g. IC algorithm of [12]). This paper is devoted to another alg...