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54
Interval Analysis For Computer Graphics
 Computer Graphics
, 1992
"... This paper discusses how interval analysis can be used to solve a wide variety of problems in computer graphics. These problems include ray tracing, interference detection, polygonal decomposition of parametric surfaces, and CSG on solids bounded by parametric surfaces. Only two basic algorithms are ..."
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Cited by 151 (2 self)
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This paper discusses how interval analysis can be used to solve a wide variety of problems in computer graphics. These problems include ray tracing, interference detection, polygonal decomposition of parametric surfaces, and CSG on solids bounded by parametric surfaces. Only two basic algorithms are required: SOLVE, which computes solutions to a system of constraints, and MINIMIZE, which computes the global minimum of a function, subject to a system of constraints. We present algorithms for SOLVE and MINIMIZE using interval analysis as the conceptual framework. Crucial to the technique is the creation of "inclusion functions" for each constraint and function to be minimized. Inclusion functions compute a bound on the range of a function, given a similar bound on its domain, allowing a branch and bound approach to constraint solution and constrained minimization. Inclusion functions also allow the MINIMIZE algorithm to compute global rather than local minima, unlike many other numerica...
A survey of shadow algorithms
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1990
"... Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd ..."
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Cited by 146 (3 self)
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Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd shadows, soft shadbws, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives. For each type, we examine shadow algorithms within various rendswing techniques. This survey attempts to provide readem with enough background and insight on the various rmthods to dow them to choose the algorithm best wpuited to their W. We also hope that our analysis will h&p identify the a m that need more research and point bo possible sotutkms. A shadowa region of relative darkness within an not necessarily attenuate the light it occludes. In fact, illuminated regionoccurs when an object totally or it can concentrate light. However, as is traditional in partially occludes the light. A transparent object does image synthesis, lve will consider a region to be in
Sphere Tracing: A Geometric Method for the Antialiased Ray Tracing of Implicit Surfaces
 The Visual Computer
, 1994
"... Sphere tracing is a new technique for rendering implicit surfaces using geometric distance. Distancebased models are common in computeraided geometric design and in the modeling of articulated figures. Given a function returning the distance to an object, sphere tracing marches along the ray towar ..."
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Cited by 78 (2 self)
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Sphere tracing is a new technique for rendering implicit surfaces using geometric distance. Distancebased models are common in computeraided geometric design and in the modeling of articulated figures. Given a function returning the distance to an object, sphere tracing marches along the ray toward its first intersection in steps guaranteed not to penetrate the implicit surface. Sphere tracing is particularly adept at rendering pathological surfaces. Creased and rough implicit surfaces are defined by functions with discontinuous or undefined derivatives. Current root finding techniques such as LG surfaces and interval analysis require periodic evaluation of the derivative, and their behavior is dependent on the behavior of the derivative. Sphere tracing requires only a bound on the magnitude of the derivative, robustly avoiding problems Manuscript, July 1994. Recommended for publication: The Visual Computer. 570 where the derivative jumps or vanishes. This robustness and scope ...
Illumination from Curved Reflectors
, 1992
"... A technique is presented to compute the reflected illumination from curved mirror surfaces onto other surfaces. In accordance with Fermat's principle, this is equivalent to finding extremal paths from the light source to the visible surface via the mirrors. Once pathways of illumination are fou ..."
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Cited by 64 (0 self)
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A technique is presented to compute the reflected illumination from curved mirror surfaces onto other surfaces. In accordance with Fermat's principle, this is equivalent to finding extremal paths from the light source to the visible surface via the mirrors. Once pathways of illumination are found, irradiance is computed from the Gaussian curvature of the geometrical wavefront. Techniques from optics, differential geometry and interval analysis are applied to solve these problems. CR Categories and Subject Descriptions: I.3.3 [ Computer Graphics ]: Picture/Image Generation; I.3.7 [ Computer Graphics ]: ThreeDimensional Graphics and Realism General Terms: Algorithms Additional Keywords and Phrases: Caustics, Differential Geometry, Geometrical Optics, Global Illumination, Interval Arithmetic, Ray Tracing, Wavefronts 1. Introduction Ray tracing provides a straightforward means for synthesizing realistic images on the computer. A scene is first modeled, usually by a collection of implici...
Adaptive Enumeration of Implicit Surfaces with Affine Arithmetic
 Computer Graphics Forum
, 1996
"... . We discuss adaptive enumeration and rendering methods for implicit surfaces, using octrees computed with affine arithmetic, a new tool for range analysis. Affine arithmetic is similar to standard interval arithmetic, but takes into account correlations between operands and subformulas, generally ..."
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Cited by 32 (15 self)
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. We discuss adaptive enumeration and rendering methods for implicit surfaces, using octrees computed with affine arithmetic, a new tool for range analysis. Affine arithmetic is similar to standard interval arithmetic, but takes into account correlations between operands and subformulas, generally providing much tighter bounds for the computed quantities. The resulting octrees are accordingly much smaller, and the rendering faster. We also describe applications of affine arithmetic to intersection and ray tracing of implicit surfaces. keywords: cellular models, interval analysis, rendering, implicit surfaces. 1 Introduction Implicit surfaces have recently become popular in computer graphics and solid modeling. In order to exploit existing hardware and algorithms, it is often necessary to approximate such surfaces by models with simpler geometry, such as polygonal meshes or voxel arrays. Let S be a surface defined implicitly by the equation h(x; y; z) = 0. A simple and general techn...
Interactive ray tracing of arbitrary implicits with simd interval arithmetic
 In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE/EG Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing
, 2007
"... We present a practical and efficient algorithm for interactively ray tracing arbitrary implicit surfaces. We use interval arithmetic (IA) both for robust root computation and guaranteed detection of topological features. In conjunction with ray tracing, this allows for rendering literally any progra ..."
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Cited by 29 (7 self)
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We present a practical and efficient algorithm for interactively ray tracing arbitrary implicit surfaces. We use interval arithmetic (IA) both for robust root computation and guaranteed detection of topological features. In conjunction with ray tracing, this allows for rendering literally any programmable implicit function simply from its definition. Our method requires neither special hardware, nor preprocessing or storage of any data structure. Efficiency is achieved through SIMD optimization of both the interval arithmetic computation and coherent ray traversal algorithm, delivering interactive results even for complex implicit functions.
Surface Intersection Using Affine Arithmetic
 In Graphics Interface
, 1996
"... We describe a variant of a domain decomposition method proposed by Gleicher and Kass for intersecting and trimming parametric surfaces. Instead of using interval arithmetic to guide the decomposition, the variant described here uses affine arithmetic, a tool recently proposed for range analysis. Aff ..."
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Cited by 18 (7 self)
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We describe a variant of a domain decomposition method proposed by Gleicher and Kass for intersecting and trimming parametric surfaces. Instead of using interval arithmetic to guide the decomposition, the variant described here uses affine arithmetic, a tool recently proposed for range analysis. Affine arithmetic is similar to standard interval arithmetic, but takes into account correlations between operands and subformulas, generally providing much tighter bounds for the computed quantities. As a consequence, the quadtree domain decompositions are much smaller and the intersection algorithm runs faster. keywords: surface intersection, trimming surfaces, range analysis, interval analysis, CAGD.
When Newton meets Descartes: A simple and fast algorithm to isolate the real roots of a polynomial
 CoRR
"... We introduce a novel algorithm denoted NEWDSC to isolate the real roots of a univariate squarefree polynomial f with integer coefficients. The algorithm iteratively subdivides an initial interval which is known to contain all real roots of f and performs exact operations on the coefficients of f i ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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We introduce a novel algorithm denoted NEWDSC to isolate the real roots of a univariate squarefree polynomial f with integer coefficients. The algorithm iteratively subdivides an initial interval which is known to contain all real roots of f and performs exact operations on the coefficients of f in each step. For the subdivision strategy, we combine Descartes ’ Rule of Signs and Newton iteration. More precisely, instead of using a fixed subdivision strategy such as bisection in each iteration, a Newton step based on the number of sign variations for an actual interval is considered, and, only if the Newton step fails, we fall back to bisection. Following this approach, our analysis shows that, for most iterations, quadratic convergence towards the real roots is achieved. In terms of complexity, our method induces a recursion tree of almost optimal size O(n · log(nτ)), where n denotes the degree of the polynomial and τ the bitsize of its coefficients. The latter bound constitutes an improvement by a factor of τ upon all existing subdivision methods for the task of isolating the real roots. In addition, we provide a bit complexity analysis showing that NEWDSC needs only Õ(n3τ) bit operations1 to isolate all real roots of f. This matches the best bound known for this fundamental problem. However, in comparison to the significantly more involved numerical algorithms by V. Pan and A. Schönhage, which achieve the same bit complexity for the task of isolating all complex roots, NEWDSC focuses on real root isolation, is much easier to access and to implement. 1.
A MultipleScale Stochastic Modelling Primitive
"... Stochastic modelling has been successfully used in computer graphics to model a wide array of natural phenomena. In modelling threedimensional fuzzy or partially translucent phenomena, however, many approaches are hampered by high memory and computation requirements, and by a general lack of user c ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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Stochastic modelling has been successfully used in computer graphics to model a wide array of natural phenomena. In modelling threedimensional fuzzy or partially translucent phenomena, however, many approaches are hampered by high memory and computation requirements, and by a general lack of user control. We will present a general stochastic modelling primitive that operates on two or more scales of visual detail, and which offers considerable flexibility and control of the model. At the macroscopic level, the general shape of the model is constrained by an ellipsoidal correlation function that controls the interpolation of usersupplied data values. We use a technique called Kri#in# to perform this interpolation. The microscopic level permits the addition of noise, which allows a user to add interesting visual textural detail and translucency. A wide variety of noisesynthesis techniques can be employed in our model. We shall describe the mathematical structure of our model, and give an attractive rendering implementation that can be embedded in a traditional ray tracer rather than requiring a volume renderer. As an example, we shall apply our approach to the modelling of clouds.
Fast Ray Tracing of Arbitrary Implicit Surfaces with Interval and Affine Arithmetic
"... Existing techniques for rendering arbitraryform implicit surfaces are limited, either in performance, correctness or flexibility. Ray tracing algorithms employing interval arithmetic (IA) or affine arithmetic (AA) for rootfinding are robust and general in the class of surfaces they support, but tr ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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Existing techniques for rendering arbitraryform implicit surfaces are limited, either in performance, correctness or flexibility. Ray tracing algorithms employing interval arithmetic (IA) or affine arithmetic (AA) for rootfinding are robust and general in the class of surfaces they support, but traditionally slow. Nonetheless, implemented efficiently using a stackdriven iterative algorithm and SIMD vector instructions, these methods can achieve interactive performance for common algebraic surfaces on the CPU. A similar algorithm can also be implemented stacklessly, allowing for efficient ray tracing on the GPU. This paper presents these algorithms, as well as an inclusionpreserving reduced affine arithmetic (RAA) for faster raysurface intersection. Shader metaprogramming allows for immediate and automatic generation of symbolic expressions and their interval or affine extensions. Moreover, we are able to render even complex forms robustly, in realtime at high resolution.