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Handbook of Applied Cryptography
, 1997
"... As we draw near to closing out the twentieth century, we see quite clearly that the informationprocessing and telecommunications revolutions now underway will continue vigorously into the twentyfirst. We interact and transact by directing flocks of digital packets towards each other through cybers ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2453 (30 self)
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As we draw near to closing out the twentieth century, we see quite clearly that the informationprocessing and telecommunications revolutions now underway will continue vigorously into the twentyfirst. We interact and transact by directing flocks of digital packets towards each other through cyberspace, carrying love notes, digital cash, and secret corporate documents. Our personal and economic lives rely more and more on our ability to let such ethereal carrier pigeons mediate at a distance what we used to do with facetoface meetings, paper documents, and a firm handshake. Unfortunately, the technical wizardry enabling remote collaborations is founded on broadcasting everything as sequences of zeros and ones that one's own dog wouldn't recognize. What is to distinguish a digital dollar when it is as easily reproducible as the spoken word? How do we converse privately when every syllable is bounced off a satellite and smeared over an entire continent? How should a bank know that it really is Bill Gates requesting from his laptop in Fiji a transfer of $10,000,000,000 to another bank? Fortunately, the magical mathematics of cryptography can help. Cryptography provides techniques for keeping information secret, for determining that information
Random number generation
"... Random numbers are the nuts and bolts of simulation. Typically, all the randomness required by the model is simulated by a random number generator whose output is assumed to be a sequence of independent and identically distributed (IID) U(0, 1) random variables (i.e., continuous random variables dis ..."
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Cited by 136 (30 self)
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Random numbers are the nuts and bolts of simulation. Typically, all the randomness required by the model is simulated by a random number generator whose output is assumed to be a sequence of independent and identically distributed (IID) U(0, 1) random variables (i.e., continuous random variables distributed uniformly over the interval
Generatory Liczb Losowych: Algorytmy,testowanie, Zastosowania
, 2001
"... gu dowolnych (du#ych) liczb naturalnych jest zjawiskiem losowym. Bez dok#adnego sprawdzenia (poza oczywistymi sytuacjami liczb parzystych, podzielnych przez 5, itp.) nie potrafimypowiedzie#, czy dana liczba jest pierwsza i jaka b#dzie nast#pna po niej liczba pierwsza. Dla du#ych liczb naturalnych [1 ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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gu dowolnych (du#ych) liczb naturalnych jest zjawiskiem losowym. Bez dok#adnego sprawdzenia (poza oczywistymi sytuacjami liczb parzystych, podzielnych przez 5, itp.) nie potrafimypowiedzie#, czy dana liczba jest pierwsza i jaka b#dzie nast#pna po niej liczba pierwsza. Dla du#ych liczb naturalnych [1] nie s# r#wnie# w spos#b oczywisty znane sk#adniki ich rozk#adu na czynniki pierwsze (ich znalezienie wymaga du#ego nak#adu pracy,cojestpodstaw# bezpiecze#stwa pewnych kryptosystem#w). W#r#d liczb naturalnychmamy zatem do czynienia z ci#gami liczb losowych, czyli takich, kt#rychpojawienie si# nie mo#e by# z pewno#ci# przewidziane, a struktura nie mo#e by# opisane #adnym okre#lonym wzorcem. W og#lnej sytuacji, ci#giem liczb losowych (og#lniej: losowym ci#giem znak#w) nazwiemy taki ci#g, kt#rego nie mo#na zapisa# za pomoc# algorytmu w postaci kr#tszej od samego ci#gu. Na podstawie takiego ci#gu nie mo#na stworzy# #adnych regu#, kt#re pozwala#ybyodtworzy# ten ci#g bez znajomo#ci wszystkich
This is a Chapter from the Handbook of Applied Cryptography
, 1996
"... s), p.146, 1985. [790] J.L. MASSEY AND X. LAI, "Device for converting a digital block and the use thereof", European Patent # 482,154, 29 Apr 1992. [791] , "Device for the conversion of a digital block and use of same", U.S. Patent # 5,214,703, 25 May 1993. [792] J.L. MASSEY AND J.K. OMURA, "Meth ..."
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s), p.146, 1985. [790] J.L. MASSEY AND X. LAI, "Device for converting a digital block and the use thereof", European Patent # 482,154, 29 Apr 1992. [791] , "Device for the conversion of a digital block and use of same", U.S. Patent # 5,214,703, 25 May 1993. [792] J.L. MASSEY AND J.K. OMURA, "Method and apparatus for maintaining the privacy of digital messages conveyed by public transmission ", U.S. Patent # 4,567,600, 28 Jan 1986. [793] J.L. MASSEY AND R.A. RUEPPEL, "Linear ciphers and random sequence generators with multiple clocks", Advances in Cryptology Proceedings of EUROCRYPT 84 (LNCS 209), 7487, 1985. [794] J.L. MASSEY AND S. SERCONEK, "A Fourier transform approach to the linear complexity of nonlinearly filtered sequences", Advances in CryptologyCRYPTO '94 (LNCS 839), 332340, 1994. [795] M. MATSUI, "The first experimental cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard", Advances in CryptologyCRYPTO '94 (LNCS 839), 111, 1994. [796] , "Linear cryptanalysis metho...
Application of Signal and Noise Theory to Digital VLSI Testing ∗
"... Abstract – We analyze input signals of digital circuits. Typical signals are functional inputs, test vectors, or simply random inputs. Bits in a sequence of vectors contain spatial correlation (among bits of a vector) and temporal correlation (among bits of the bit stream at an input pin). Some spec ..."
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Abstract – We analyze input signals of digital circuits. Typical signals are functional inputs, test vectors, or simply random inputs. Bits in a sequence of vectors contain spatial correlation (among bits of a vector) and temporal correlation (among bits of the bit stream at an input pin). Some specified bits have don’t care behavior because they can be changed without affecting the relevant (testing or functional) properties of the signal. In this paper, we develop a functional analysis framework for digital signals. A given sequence of vectors that can be functional verification vectors, RTL test vectors, or gatelevel ATPG vectors for a fault sample, is analyzed. A bit stream of n bits corresponding to an input pin is considered a sample signal to be analyzed. The bit stream is resolved in terms of n Hadamard functions, which form a complete basis set for any stream of n bits. The total power of this spectrum is normalized to unity and all Hadamard components with power below a threshold 2/n are regarded as noise. This threshold represents twice the component power level of the ideal spectrum of a random bit stream, which contains all n Hadamard components in equal magnitude (analogous to white noise). The spectral components of a bit stream represent temporal correlation while the phases of spectral components of separate bit streams represent the spatial correlation. Applications to ATPG, test compression and BIST (combinational and sequential), as described in recent publications will benefit from this analysis. This is because the previous works have used adhoc methods for extracting spectral components from samples of test signals. We illustrate the analysis with applications to sequential benchmark circuits. 1.
2010 28th IEEE VLSI Test Symposium Application of Signal and Noise Theory to Digital VLSI Testing ∗
"... Abstract – Circuit dependent vectors like functional verification vectors, RTL test vectors, or gatelevel ATPG vectors contain circuit specific information in the form of spatial correlations (among bits of a vector) and temporal correlations (among bits of the bit stream at an input pin). Some spe ..."
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Abstract – Circuit dependent vectors like functional verification vectors, RTL test vectors, or gatelevel ATPG vectors contain circuit specific information in the form of spatial correlations (among bits of a vector) and temporal correlations (among bits of the bit stream at an input pin). Some specified bits have don’t care behavior because they can be changed without affecting the relevant (testing or functional) properties of the signal. In this paper, we develop a functional analysis framework for digital signals which extracts this information content from the vectors under consideration. Our proposed method is based on spectral analysis of binary bitstreams using Hadamard transform. A bitstream corresponding to an input pin is transformed to Hadamard spectral components. The information content is distinguished from the noise in the signal using spectral analysis of random binary bitstreams. The magnitude of the spectral components represent temporal correlations while the phases of spectral components of separate bit streams represent the spatial correlations. Applications to ATPG, test compression and BIST (combinational and sequential), as described in recent publications, will benefit from this analysis, because the previous works have used adhoc methods for extracting spectral components from samples of test signals. We illustrate the analysis with an application to test generation for sequential benchmark circuits. 1.
Author manuscript, published in "International Workshop on Cellular Automata, Hiroshima: Japon (2006)" A Walsh exploration of elementary CA rules
, 2008
"... In this paper, we explore the 256 elementary cellular automata rules by a Walsh transform in order to find out correlationimmune rules for generating good pseudorandom sequences. We prove that, except the 8 linear rules, there is no correlationimmune rule among the 256 rules. Thus, Wolfram cellul ..."
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In this paper, we explore the 256 elementary cellular automata rules by a Walsh transform in order to find out correlationimmune rules for generating good pseudorandom sequences. We prove that, except the 8 linear rules, there is no correlationimmune rule among the 256 rules. Thus, Wolfram cellular automata cannot be used as a cryptographic pseudorandom generator since the generated pseudorandom sequences are susceptible of correlation attacks. We conclude with some remarks on cryptography with cellular automata.