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A Theory of Diagnosis from First Principles
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1987
"... Suppose one is given a description of a system, together with an observation of the system's behaviour which conflicts with the way the system is meant to behave. The diagnostic problem is to determine those components of the system which, when assumed to be functioning abnormally, will explain ..."
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Cited by 892 (5 self)
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Suppose one is given a description of a system, together with an observation of the system's behaviour which conflicts with the way the system is meant to behave. The diagnostic problem is to determine those components of the system which, when assumed to be functioning abnormally, will explain the discrepancy between the observed and correct system behaviour. We propose a general theory for this problem. The theory requires only that the system be described in a suitable logic. Moreover, there are many such suitable logics, e.g. firstorder, temporal, dynamic, etc. As a result, the theory accommodates diagnostic reasoning in a wide variety of practical settings, including digital and analogue circuits, medicine, and database updates. The theory leads to an algorithm for computing all diagnoses, and to various results concerning principles of measurement for discriminating among competing diagnoses. Finally, the theory reveals close connections between diagnostic reasoning and nonmonotonic reasoning.
Classical Negation in Logic Programs and Disjunctive Databases
 New Generation Computing
, 1991
"... An important limitation of traditional logic programming as a knowledge representation tool, in comparison with classical logic, is that logic programming does not allow us to deal directly with incomplete information. In order to overcome this limitation, we extend the class of general logic progra ..."
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Cited by 860 (73 self)
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An important limitation of traditional logic programming as a knowledge representation tool, in comparison with classical logic, is that logic programming does not allow us to deal directly with incomplete information. In order to overcome this limitation, we extend the class of general logic programs by including classical negation, in addition to negationasfailure. The semantics of such extended programs is based on the method of stable models. The concept of a disjunctive database can be extended in a similar way. We show that some facts of commonsense knowledge can be represented by logic programs and disjunctive databases more easily when classical negation is available. Computationally, classical negation can be eliminated from extended programs by a simple preprocessor. Extended programs are identical to a special case of default theories in the sense of Reiter. 1 Introduction An important limitation of traditional logic programming as a knowledge representation tool, in comp...
On the acceptability of arguments and its fundamental role in nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and nperson games
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... The purpose of this paper is to study the fundamental mechanism humans use in argumentation and its role in different major approaches to commonsense reasoning in AI and logic programming. We present three novel results: We develop a theory for argumentation in which the acceptability of arguments i ..."
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Cited by 789 (11 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to study the fundamental mechanism humans use in argumentation and its role in different major approaches to commonsense reasoning in AI and logic programming. We present three novel results: We develop a theory for argumentation in which the acceptability of arguments is precisely defined. We show that logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning in AI are different forms of argumentation. We show that argumentation can be viewed as a special form of logic programming with negation as failure. This result introduces a general method for generating metainterpreters for argumentation systems. 1.
Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Preferential Models and Cumulative Logics
, 1990
"... Many systems that exhibit nonmonotonic behavior have been described and studied already in the literature. The general notion of nonmonotonic reasoning, though, has almost always been described only negatively, by the property it does not enjoy, i.e. monotonicity. We study here general patterns of ..."
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Cited by 544 (13 self)
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Many systems that exhibit nonmonotonic behavior have been described and studied already in the literature. The general notion of nonmonotonic reasoning, though, has almost always been described only negatively, by the property it does not enjoy, i.e. monotonicity. We study here general patterns of nonmonotonic reasoning and try to isolate properties that could help us map the field of nonmonotonic reasoning by reference to positive properties. We concentrate on a number of families of nonmonotonic consequence relations, defined in the style of Gentzen [13]. Both prooftheoretic and semantic points of view are developed in parallel. The former point of view was pioneered by D. Gabbay in [10], while the latter has been advocated by Y. Shoham in [38]. Five such families are defined and characterized by representation theorems, relating the two points of view. One of the families of interest, that of preferential relations, turns out to have been studied by E. Adams in [2]. The pr...
Abduction in Logic Programming
"... Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over th ..."
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Cited by 538 (73 self)
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Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over the last ten years and to take a critical view of these developments from several perspectives: logical, epistemological, computational and suitability to application. The paper attempts to expose some of the challenges and prospects for the further development of the field.
Applications Of Circumscription To Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1986
"... We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects o ..."
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Cited by 487 (11 self)
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We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects of various entities. Included are nonmonotonic treatments of isa hierarchies, the unique names hypothesis, and the frame problem. The new circumscription may be called formula circumscription to distinguish it from the previously defined domain circumscription and predicate circumscription. A still more general formalism called prioritized circumscription is briefly explored. 1 INTRODUCTION ANDNEW DEFINITION OF CIRCUMSCRIPTION (McCarthy 1980) introduces the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning and gives motivation, some mathematical properties and some ex1 amples of its application. The present paper is logically selfcontained, but motivation may be enhanced by reading t...
PDDL2.1: An extension to PDDL for expressing temporal planning domains
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2003
"... In recent years research in the planning community has moved increasingly towards application of planners to realistic problems involving both time and many types of resources. For example, interest in planning demonstrated by the space research community has inspired work in observation scheduling, ..."
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Cited by 441 (35 self)
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In recent years research in the planning community has moved increasingly towards application of planners to realistic problems involving both time and many types of resources. For example, interest in planning demonstrated by the space research community has inspired work in observation scheduling, planetary rover exploration and spacecraft control domains. Other temporal and resourceintensive domains including logistics planning, plant control and manufacturing have also helped to focus the community on the modelling and reasoning issues that must be confronted to make planning technology meet the challenges of application. The International Planning Competitions have acted as an important motivating force behind the progress that has been made in planning since 1998. The third competition (held in 2002) set the planning community the challenge of handling time and numeric resources. This necessitated the development of a modelling language capable of expressing temporal and numeric properties of planning domains. In this paper we describe the language, pddl2.1, that was used in the competition. We describe the syntax of the language, its formal semantics and the validation of concurrent plans. We observe that pddl2.1 has considerable modelling power — exceeding the capabilities of current planning technology — and presents a number of important challenges to the research community.
Representing Action and Change by Logic Programs
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1993
"... We represent properties of actions in a logic programming language that uses both classical negation and negation as failure. The method is applicable to temporal projection problems with incomplete information, as well as to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics ..."
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Cited by 380 (26 self)
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We represent properties of actions in a logic programming language that uses both classical negation and negation as failure. The method is applicable to temporal projection problems with incomplete information, as well as to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics of action based on states and transition functions. 1 Introduction This paper extends the work of Eshghi and Kowalski [6], Evans [7] and Apt and Bezem [1] on representing properties of actions in logic programming languages with negation as failure. Our goal is to overcome some of the limitations of the earlier work. The existing formalizations of action in logic programming are adequate for only the simplest kind of temporal reasoning"temporal projection." In a temporal projection problem, we are given a description of the initial state of the world, and use properties of actions to determine what the world will look like after a series of actions is performed. Moreover, the existing ...
Extending and Implementing the Stable Model Semantics
, 2002
"... A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities ..."
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Cited by 314 (5 self)
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A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities. A declarative semantics is developed which extends the stable model semantics of normal programs. The computational complexity of the language is shown to be similar to that of normal programs under the stable model semantics. A simple embedding of general weight constraint rules to a small subclass of the language called basic constraint rules is devised. An implementation of the language, the smodels system, is developed based on this embedding. It uses a two level architecture consisting of a frontend and a kernel language implementation. The frontend allows restricted use of variables and functions and compiles general weight constraint rules to basic constraint rules. A major part of the work is the development of an ecient search procedure for computing stable models for this kernel language. The procedure is compared with and empirically tested against satis ability checkers and an implementation of the stable model semantics. It offers a competitive implementation of the stable model semantics for normal programs and attractive performance for problems where the new types of rules provide a compact representation.