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80
Indexed Squares
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
"... . We study some combinatorial principles intermediate between square and weak square. We construct models which distinguish various square principles, and show that a strengthened form of weak square holds in the Prikry model. Jensen proved that a large cardinal property slightly stronger than 1 ..."
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. We study some combinatorial principles intermediate between square and weak square. We construct models which distinguish various square principles, and show that a strengthened form of weak square holds in the Prikry model. Jensen proved that a large cardinal property slightly stronger than 1extendibility is incompatible with square; we prove this is close to optimal by showing that 1extendibility is compatible with square. 1. Introduction In this paper we study some variations on Jensen's celebrated combinatorial principle (variously pronounced as \square kappa" or \box kappa"). is a principle which is helpful in constructing objects of cardinality + ; for example Jensen showed that if holds then there is a special + Aronszajn tree, and every stationary subset of + contains a nonreecting stationary subset. Jensen proved [Je1] that if V = L then holds for every uncountable cardinal ( ! is a trivial theorem in ZFC). In combination with Jen...
Gödel's program for new axioms: Why, where, how and what?
 IN GODEL '96
, 1996
"... From 1931 until late in his life (at least 1970) Gödel called for the pursuit of new axioms for mathematics to settle both undecided numbertheoretical propositions (of the form obtained in his incompleteness results) and undecided settheoretical propositions (in particular CH). As to the nature of ..."
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Cited by 16 (6 self)
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From 1931 until late in his life (at least 1970) Gödel called for the pursuit of new axioms for mathematics to settle both undecided numbertheoretical propositions (of the form obtained in his incompleteness results) and undecided settheoretical propositions (in particular CH). As to the nature of these, Gödel made a variety of suggestions, but most frequently he emphasized the route of introducing ever higher axioms of in nity. In particular, he speculated (in his 1946 Princeton remarks) that there might be a uniform (though nondecidable) rationale for the choice of the latter. Despite the intense exploration of the "higher infinite" in the last 30odd years, no single rationale of that character has emerged. Moreover, CH still remains undecided by such axioms, though they have been demonstrated to have many other interesting settheoretical consequences. In this paper, I present a new very general notion of the "unfolding" closure of schematically axiomatized formal systems S which provides a uniform systematic means of expanding in an essential way both the language and axioms (and hence theorems) of such systems S. Reporting joint work with T. Strahm, a characterization is given in more familiar terms in the case that S is a basic
Does Mathematics Need New Axioms?
 American Mathematical Monthly
, 1999
"... this article I will be looking at the leading question from the point of view of the logician, and for a substantial part of that, from the perspective of one supremely important logician: Kurt Godel. From the time of his stunning incompleteness results in 1931 to the end of his life, Godel called f ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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this article I will be looking at the leading question from the point of view of the logician, and for a substantial part of that, from the perspective of one supremely important logician: Kurt Godel. From the time of his stunning incompleteness results in 1931 to the end of his life, Godel called for the pursuit of new axioms to settle undecided arithmetical problems. And from 1947 on, with the publication of his unusual article, "What is Cantor's continuum problem?" [11], he called in addition for the pursuit of new axioms to settle Cantor's famous conjecture about the cardinal number of the continuum. In both cases, he pointed primarily to schemes of higher infinity in set theory as the direction in which to seek these new principles. Logicians have learned a great deal in recent years that is relevant to Godel's program, but there is considerable disagreement about what conclusions to draw from their results. I'm far from unbiased in this respect, and you'll see how I come out on these matters by the end of this essay, but I will try to give you a fair presentation of other positions along the way so you can decide for yourself which you favor.
Polish group actions: dichotomies and generalized elementary embeddings
 J. Amer. Math. Soc
, 1997
"... The results in this paper involve two different topics in the descriptive theory of Polish group actions. The book BeckerKechris [6] is an introduction to that theory. Our two topics—and two collections of theorems—are rather unrelated, but the proofs for both topics are essentially the same. ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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The results in this paper involve two different topics in the descriptive theory of Polish group actions. The book BeckerKechris [6] is an introduction to that theory. Our two topics—and two collections of theorems—are rather unrelated, but the proofs for both topics are essentially the same.
Forcing axioms and projective sets of reals
 Proceedings of Foundations of the Formal Sciences III, in: “Classical and new paradigms of computation and their complexity hierarchies” (Löwe
"... Abstract. This paper is an introduction to forcing axioms and large cardinals. Specifically, we shall discuss the large cardinal strength of forcing axioms in the presence of regularity properties for projective sets of reals. The new result shown in this paper says that ZFC + the bounded proper for ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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Abstract. This paper is an introduction to forcing axioms and large cardinals. Specifically, we shall discuss the large cardinal strength of forcing axioms in the presence of regularity properties for projective sets of reals. The new result shown in this paper says that ZFC + the bounded proper forcing axiom (BPFA) + “every projective set of reals is Lebesgue measurable ” is equiconsistent with ZFC + “there is a Σ1 reflecting cardinal above a remarkable cardinal.” 1. Introduction. The current paper ∗ is in the tradition of the following result.
The Mathematical Development Of Set Theory  From Cantor To Cohen
 The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1996
"... This article is dedicated to Professor Burton Dreben on his coming of age. I owe him particular thanks for his careful reading and numerous suggestions for improvement. My thanks go also to Jose Ruiz and the referee for their helpful comments. Parts of this account were given at the 1995 summer meet ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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This article is dedicated to Professor Burton Dreben on his coming of age. I owe him particular thanks for his careful reading and numerous suggestions for improvement. My thanks go also to Jose Ruiz and the referee for their helpful comments. Parts of this account were given at the 1995 summer meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic at Haifa, in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology logic seminar, and to the Paris Logic Group. The author would like to express his thanks to the various organizers, as well as his gratitude to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem for its hospitality during the preparation of this article in the autumn of 1995.
Diagonal Prikry extensions
 J. Symbolic Logic
"... It is a wellknown phenomenon in set theory that problems in infinite combinatorics involving singular cardinals and their successors tend to be harder than the parallel problems for regular cardinals. Examples include the behaviour of cardinal exponentiation, the extent ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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It is a wellknown phenomenon in set theory that problems in infinite combinatorics involving singular cardinals and their successors tend to be harder than the parallel problems for regular cardinals. Examples include the behaviour of cardinal exponentiation, the extent
The Realm of Ordinal Analysis
 SETS AND PROOFS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE LOGIC COLLOQUIUM '97
, 1997
"... A central theme running through all the main areas of Mathematical Logic is the classification of sets, functions or theories, by means of transfinite hierarchies whose ordinal levels measure their `rank' or `complexity' in some sense appropriate to the underlying context. In Proof Theory this is ma ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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A central theme running through all the main areas of Mathematical Logic is the classification of sets, functions or theories, by means of transfinite hierarchies whose ordinal levels measure their `rank' or `complexity' in some sense appropriate to the underlying context. In Proof Theory this is manifest in the assignment of `proof theoretic ordinals' to theories, gauging their `consistency strength' and `computational power'. Ordinaltheoretic proof theory came into existence in 1936, springing forth from Gentzen's head in the course of his consistency proof of arithmetic. To put it roughly, ordinal analyses attach ordinals in a given representation system to formal theories. Though this area of mathematical logic has is roots in Hilbert's "Beweistheorie "  the aim of which was to lay to rest all worries about the foundations of mathematics once and for all by securing mathematics via an absolute proof of consistency  technical results in pro...
Partition Theorems and Computability Theory
 Bull. Symbolic Logic
, 2004
"... The computabilitytheoretic and reverse mathematical aspects of various combinatorial principles, such as König’s Lemma and Ramsey’s Theorem, have received a great deal of attention and are active areas of research. We carry on this study of effective combinatorics by analyzing various partition the ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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The computabilitytheoretic and reverse mathematical aspects of various combinatorial principles, such as König’s Lemma and Ramsey’s Theorem, have received a great deal of attention and are active areas of research. We carry on this study of effective combinatorics by analyzing various partition theorems (such as Ramsey’s Theorem) with the aim of understanding the complexity of solutions to computable instances in terms of the Turing degrees and the arithmetical hierarchy. Our main focus is the study of the effective content of two partition theorems allowing infinitely many colors: the Canonical Ramsey Theorem of Erdös and Rado, and the Regressive Function Theorem of Kanamori and McAloon. Our results on the complexity of solutions rely heavily on a new, purely inductive, proof of the Canonical Ramsey Theorem. This study unearths some interesting relationships between these two partition theorems, Ramsey’s Theorem, and Konig’s Lemma, and these connections will be emphasized. We also study Ramsey degrees, i.e. those Turing degrees which are able to compute homogeneous sets for every computable 2coloring of pairs of natural numbers, in an attempt to further understand the effective content of Ramsey’s Theorem for exponent 2. We establish some new results about these degrees, and obtain as a corollary the nonexistence of a “universal ” computable 2coloring of pairs of natural numbers.