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330
CONDENSATION  conditional density propagation for visual tracking
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1998
"... The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is challenging. Kalman filtering is inadequate because it is based on Gaussian densities which, being unimodal, cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. The Condensation algorithm uses "factored sampling", previously applied to the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1124 (12 self)
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The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is challenging. Kalman filtering is inadequate because it is based on Gaussian densities which, being unimodal, cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. The Condensation algorithm uses "factored sampling", previously applied to the interpretation of static images, in which the probability distribution of possible interpretations is represented by a randomly generated set. Condensation uses learned dynamical models, together with visual observations, to propagate the random set over time. The result is highly robust tracking of agile motion. Notwithstanding the use of stochastic methods, the algorithm runs in near realtime. Contents 1 Tracking curves in clutter 2 2 Discretetime propagation of state density 3 3 Factored sampling 6 4 The Condensation algorithm 8 5 Stochastic dynamical models for curve motion 10 6 Observation model 13 7 Applying the Condensation algorithm to videostreams 17 8 Conclusions 26 A Nonline...
Face Recognition: A Literature Survey
, 2000
"... ... This paper provides an uptodate critical survey of still and videobased face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an uptodate review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into ..."
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Cited by 850 (21 self)
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... This paper provides an uptodate critical survey of still and videobased face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an uptodate review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition,
Contour Tracking By Stochastic Propagation of Conditional Density
, 1996
"... . In Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, 1996, pp. 343356, Cambridge, UK The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is a challenging one. Trackers based on Kalman filters are of limited use; because they are based on Gaussian densities which are unimodal, they cannot represent s ..."
Abstract

Cited by 565 (23 self)
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. In Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, 1996, pp. 343356, Cambridge, UK The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is a challenging one. Trackers based on Kalman filters are of limited use; because they are based on Gaussian densities which are unimodal, they cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. Extensions to the Kalman filter to handle multiple data associations work satisfactorily in the simple case of point targets, but do not extend naturally to continuous curves. A new, stochastic algorithm is proposed here, the Condensation algorithm  Conditional Density Propagation over time. It uses `factored sampling', a method previously applied to interpretation of static images, in which the distribution of possible interpretations is represented by a randomly generated set of representatives. The Condensation algorithm combines factored sampling with learned dynamical models to propagate an entire probability distribution for object pos...
Efficient region tracking with parametric models of geometry and illumination
 PAMI
, 1998
"... Abstract—As an object moves through the field of view of a camera, the images of the object may change dramatically. This is not simply due to the translation of the object across the image plane. Rather, complications arise due to the fact that the object undergoes changes in pose relative to the v ..."
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Cited by 442 (22 self)
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Abstract—As an object moves through the field of view of a camera, the images of the object may change dramatically. This is not simply due to the translation of the object across the image plane. Rather, complications arise due to the fact that the object undergoes changes in pose relative to the viewing camera, changes in illumination relative to light sources, and may even become partially or fully occluded. In this paper, we develop an efficient, general framework for object tracking—one which addresses each of these complications. We first develop a computationally efficient method for handling the geometric distortions produced by changes in pose. We then combine geometry and illumination into an algorithm that tracks large image regions using no more computation than would be required to track with no accommodation for illumination changes. Finally, we augment these methods with techniques from robust statistics and treat occluded regions on the object as statistical outliers. Throughout, we present experimental results performed on live video sequences demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of our methods. Index Terms—Visual tracking, realtime vision, illumination, motion estimation, robust statistics.
Lambertian Reflectance and Linear Subspaces
, 2000
"... We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wi ..."
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Cited by 336 (21 self)
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We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a lowdimensional linear subspace, explaining prior empirical results. We also provide a simple analytic characterization of this linear space. We obtain these results by representing lighting using spherical harmonics and describing the effects of Lambertian materials as the analog of a convolution. These results allow us to construct algorithms for object recognition based on linear methods as well as algorithms that use convex optimization to enforce nonnegative lighting functions. Finally, we show a simple way to enforce nonnegative lighting when the images of an object lie near a 4D linear space. Research conducted w...
What is the Set of Images of an Object Under All Possible Lighting Conditions
 IEEE CVPR
, 1996
"... The appearance of a particular object depends on both the viewpoint from which it is observed and the light sources by which it is illuminated. If the appearance of two objects is never identical for any pose or lighting conditions, then in theory the objects can always be distinguished or recogni ..."
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Cited by 318 (28 self)
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The appearance of a particular object depends on both the viewpoint from which it is observed and the light sources by which it is illuminated. If the appearance of two objects is never identical for any pose or lighting conditions, then in theory the objects can always be distinguished or recognized. The question arises: What is the set of images of an object under all lighting conditions and pose? In this paper, ive consider only the set of images of an object under variable allumination (including multiple, extended light sources and attached shadows). We prove that the set of npixel images of a convex object with a Lambertian reflectance function, illuminated by an arbitrary number of point light sources at infinity, forms a convex polyhedral cone in IR " and that the dimension of this illumination cone equals the number of distinct surface normals. Furthermore, we show that the cone for a particular object can be constructed from three properly chosen images. Finally, we prove that the set of npixel images of an object of any shape and with an arbitrary reflectance function, seen under all possible illumination conditions, still forms a convex cone in Rn. Th.ese results immediately suggest certain approaches to object recognition. Throughout this paper, we ofler results demonstrating the empirical validity of the illumination cone representation. 1
Face Recognition: the Problem of Compensating for Changes in Illumination Direction
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... A face recognition system must recognize a face from a novel image despite the variations between images of the same face. A common approach to overcoming image variations because of changes in the illumination conditions is to use image representations that are relatively insensitive to these varia ..."
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Cited by 269 (3 self)
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A face recognition system must recognize a face from a novel image despite the variations between images of the same face. A common approach to overcoming image variations because of changes in the illumination conditions is to use image representations that are relatively insensitive to these variations. Examples of such representations are edge maps, image intensity derivatives, and images convolved with 2D Gaborlike filters. Here we present an empirical study that evaluates the sensitivity of these representations to changes in illumination, as well as viewpoint and facial expression. Our findings indicated that none of the representations considered is sufficient by itself to overcome image variations because of a change in the direction of illumination. Similar results were obtained for changes due to viewpoint and expression. Image representations that emphasized the horizontal features were found to be less sensitive to changes in the direction of illumination. However, systems...
Distributed representations of structure: A Theory of Analogical Access and Mapping
 Psychological Review
, 1997
"... This article describes an integrated theory of analogical access and mapping, instantiated in a ..."
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Cited by 247 (19 self)
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This article describes an integrated theory of analogical access and mapping, instantiated in a
Shock Graphs and Shape Matching
, 1998
"... We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a ..."
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Cited by 203 (32 self)
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We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a directed, acyclic shock graph, and complexity is managed by attending to the most significant (central) shape components first. The space of all such graphs is highly structured and can be characterized by the rules of a shock graph grammar. The grammar permits a reduction of a shock graph to a unique rooted shock tree. We introduce a novel tree matching algorithm which finds the best set of corresponding nodes between two shock trees in polynomial time. Using a diverse database of shapes, we demonstrate our system's performance under articulation, occlusion, and changes in viewpoint. Keywords: shape representation; shape matching; shock graph; shock graph grammar; subgraph isomorphism. 1 I...
Linear Object Classes and Image Synthesis From a Single Example Image
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... Abstract—The need to generate new views of a 3D object from a single real image arises in several fields, including graphics and object recognition. While the traditional approach relies on the use of 3D models, we have recently introduced [1], [2], [3] simpler techniques that are applicable under r ..."
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Cited by 200 (23 self)
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Abstract—The need to generate new views of a 3D object from a single real image arises in several fields, including graphics and object recognition. While the traditional approach relies on the use of 3D models, we have recently introduced [1], [2], [3] simpler techniques that are applicable under restricted conditions. The approach exploits image transformations that are specific to the relevant object class, and learnable from example views of other “prototypical ” objects of the same class. In this paper, we introduce such a technique by extending the notion of linear class proposed by Poggio and Vetter. For linear object classes, it is shown that linear transformations can be learned exactly from a basis set of 2D prototypical views. We demonstrate the approach on artificial objects and then show preliminary evidence that the technique can effectively “rotate ” highresolution face images from a single 2D view. Index Terms—3D object recognition, rotation invariance, deformable templates, image synthesis. 1