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13
Efficient arithmetic on Koblitz curves
 Designs, Codes, and Cryptography
, 2000
"... Abstract. It has become increasingly common to implement discretelogarithm based publickey protocols on elliptic curves over finite fields. The basic operation is scalar multiplication: taking a given integer multiple of a given point on the curve. The cost of the protocols depends on that of the ..."
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Cited by 85 (0 self)
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Abstract. It has become increasingly common to implement discretelogarithm based publickey protocols on elliptic curves over finite fields. The basic operation is scalar multiplication: taking a given integer multiple of a given point on the curve. The cost of the protocols depends on that of the elliptic scalar multiplication operation. Koblitz introduced a family of curves which admit especially fast elliptic scalar multiplication. His algorithm was later modified by Meier and Staffelbach. We give an improved version of the algorithm which runs 50 % faster than any previous version. It is based on a new kind of representation of an integer, analogous to certain kinds of binary expansions. We also outline further speedups using precomputation and storage.
An Infinite Class of Counterexamples to a Conjecture Concerning NonLinear Resilient Functions
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1995
"... The main construction for resilient functions uses linear errorcorrecting codes; a resilient function constructed in this way is said to be linear. It has been conjectured that if there exists a resilient function, then there exists a linear function with the same parameters. In this note, we co ..."
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Cited by 26 (5 self)
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The main construction for resilient functions uses linear errorcorrecting codes; a resilient function constructed in this way is said to be linear. It has been conjectured that if there exists a resilient function, then there exists a linear function with the same parameters. In this note, we construct infinite classes of nonlinear resilient functions from the Kerdock and Preparata codes. We also show that there do not exist linear resilient functions having the same parameters as the functions that we construct from the Kerdock codes. Thus, the aforementioned conjecture is disproved.
Modern coding theory: the statistical mechanics and computer science point of view
, 2007
"... These are the notes for a set of lectures delivered by the two authors at the Les Houches Summer School on ‘Complex Systems’ in July 2006. They provide an introduction to the basic concepts in modern (probabilistic) coding theory, highlighting connections with statistical mechanics. We also stress c ..."
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These are the notes for a set of lectures delivered by the two authors at the Les Houches Summer School on ‘Complex Systems’ in July 2006. They provide an introduction to the basic concepts in modern (probabilistic) coding theory, highlighting connections with statistical mechanics. We also stress common concepts with other disciplines dealing with similar problems that can be generically referred to as ‘large graphical models’. While most of the lectures are devoted to the classical channel coding problem over simple memoryless channels, we present a discussion of more complex channel models. We conclude with an overview of the main open challenges in the field.
Improved Algorithms for Arithmetic on Anomalous Binary Curves
 In Advances in Cryptography, Crypto '97
, 1997
"... . It has become increasingly common to implement discretelogarithm based publickey protocols on elliptic curves over finite fields. The basic operation is scalar multiplication: taking a given integer multiple of a given point on the curve. The cost of the protocols depends on that of the elliptic ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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. It has become increasingly common to implement discretelogarithm based publickey protocols on elliptic curves over finite fields. The basic operation is scalar multiplication: taking a given integer multiple of a given point on the curve. The cost of the protocols depends on that of the elliptic scalar multiplication operation. Koblitz introduced a family of curves which admit especially fast elliptic scalar multiplication. His algorithm was later modified by Meier and Staffelbach. We give an improved version of the algorithm which runs 50% faster than any previous version. It is based on a new kind of representation of an integer, analogous to certain kinds of binary expansions. We also outline further speedups using precomputation and storage. Keywords: elliptic curves, exponentiation, publickey cryptography. 1 Introduction It has become increasingly common to implement discretelogarithm based publickey protocols on elliptic curves over finite fields. More precisely, one work...
Instruction Set Extensions for ReedSolomon Encoding and Decoding
 IEEE 16th International Conference on Applicationspecific Systems, Architectures and Processors Samos
, 2005
"... ReedSolomon codes are an important class of error correcting codes used in many applications related to communications and digital storage. The fundamental operations in ReedSolomon encoding and decoding involve Galois field arithmetic, which is not directly supported in general purpose proce ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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ReedSolomon codes are an important class of error correcting codes used in many applications related to communications and digital storage. The fundamental operations in ReedSolomon encoding and decoding involve Galois field arithmetic, which is not directly supported in general purpose processors. On the other hand, pure hardware implementations of ReedSolomon coders are not programmable. In this paper, we present a novel ReedSolomon encoding algorithm, which avoids polynomial division and is suitable for Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) processors. We also propose four new instructions for Galois field arithmetic. We show that by using the new instructions, we can speedup ReedSolomon decoding by more than a factor of 12, while still maintaining programmability. 1
Optimal interleaving on tori
 IN PROC. IEEE INT. SYMP. INFORMATION THEORY (ISIT2004)
, 2004
"... This paper studies tinterleaving on twodimensional tori, which is defined by the property that every connected subgraph of order t in the torus is labelled by t distinct integers. This is the first time that the tinterleaving problem is solved for graphs of modular structures. tinterleaving on t ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This paper studies tinterleaving on twodimensional tori, which is defined by the property that every connected subgraph of order t in the torus is labelled by t distinct integers. This is the first time that the tinterleaving problem is solved for graphs of modular structures. tinterleaving on tori has applications in distributed data storage and burst error correction, and is closely related to Lee metric codes. We say that a torus can be perfectly tinterleaved if its tinterleaving number — the minimum number of distinct integers needed to tinterleave the torus — meets the spherepacking lower bound. We prove the necessary and sufficient conditions for tori that can be perfectly tinterleaved, and present efficient perfect tinterleaving constructions. The most important contribution of this paper is to prove that when a torus is large enough in both dimensions, its tinterleaving number is at most one more than the spherepacking lower bound, and to present an optimal and efficient tinterleaving scheme for such tori. Then we prove bounds for the tinterleaving numbers of the remaining cases, completing a general characterization of the tinterleaving problem on 2dimensional tori.
to the Great Divide
, 2001
"... Euclid’s method for finding the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers was first described around the year 300 B.C. This simple iterative method is often regarded as the grandfather of all algorithms in Number Theory today. Many advances have been made since then—for example, Berlekamp’s algo ..."
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Euclid’s method for finding the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers was first described around the year 300 B.C. This simple iterative method is often regarded as the grandfather of all algorithms in Number Theory today. Many advances have been made since then—for example, Berlekamp’s algorithm for multiplicative inverse and Montgomery’s technique for modular multiplication. These binary addandshift algorithms for efficient finite field arithmetic operations have played important roles in today’s publickey cryptographic systems. Yet, two thousand three hundred years after Euclid’s GCD, one algorithm remained missing—division. For many decades we did not tackle modular division problems directly. Instead, we relied on the Extended Euclidean algorithm for calculating inversion and we computed division in a twostep process—inversion followed by multiplication. This practice is so deeply rooted in our teachings and doings today that we have neglected to ask whether the idea underlying the binary Extended Euclidean algorithm can also be applied to finding a general solution for field division. This paper describes such a solution: a binary addandshift algorithm for modular division in a residue class. This technique for fast computation of divisions in GF(2 m) is the key to a highly efficient implementation of elliptic curve cryptosystems.
A Testbed of Erasure Coding on Video Streaming System over Lossy Networks
"... Abstract — As one of the most challenging aspects of streaming video over lossy networks, the technology for controlling packet losses has attracted more and more attention. Erasure coding is one of the ideal choices to deal with this problem. In most cases, the researchers need an effective method ..."
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Abstract — As one of the most challenging aspects of streaming video over lossy networks, the technology for controlling packet losses has attracted more and more attention. Erasure coding is one of the ideal choices to deal with this problem. In most cases, the researchers need an effective method or tool to validate the erasure codes used for dealing with different packet loss patterns. Although some previous work has been done on employing erasure codes in video streaming system, few actual buildups and experiments which involve implementation of erasure codes against real packet loss in streaming systems have been reported. In this paper, we focus on constructing a testbed that integrates loss pattern generation and erasure coding implementation into video streaming services over lossy networks. With this approach, we are able to assess the capability of erasure coding in packet loss control and compare the performances of the video streaming systems with and without erasure coding. As an example, we have implemented the ReedSolomon (7, 5) code for protecting MPEG streaming data under random packet losses. Experiment results show that the replay quality can be improved significantly by using erasure coding in video streaming systems, and that the testbed can suggest appropriate erasure code parameters for different loss environments. I.