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Towards the Equivalence of Breaking the DiffieHellman Protocol and Computing Discrete Logarithms
, 1994
"... Let G be an arbitrary cyclic group with generator g and order jGj with known factorization. G could be the subgroup generated by g within a larger group H. Based on an assumption about the existence of smooth numbers in short intervals, we prove that breaking the DiffieHellman protocol for G and ..."
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Cited by 69 (6 self)
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Let G be an arbitrary cyclic group with generator g and order jGj with known factorization. G could be the subgroup generated by g within a larger group H. Based on an assumption about the existence of smooth numbers in short intervals, we prove that breaking the DiffieHellman protocol for G and base g is equivalent to computing discrete logarithms in G to the base g when a certain side information string S of length 2 log jGj is given, where S depends only on jGj but not on the definition of G and appears to be of no help for computing discrete logarithms in G. If every prime factor p of jGj is such that one of a list of expressions in p, including p \Gamma 1 and p + 1, is smooth for an appropriate smoothness bound, then S can efficiently be constructed and therefore breaking the DiffieHellman protocol is equivalent to computing discrete logarithms.
Discrete logarithms in gf(p) using the number field sieve
 SIAM J. Discrete Math
, 1993
"... Recently, several algorithms using number field sieves have been given to factor a number n in heuristic expected time Ln[1/3; c], where Ln[v; c] = exp{(c + o(1))(log n) v (log log n) 1−v}, for n → ∞. In this paper we present an algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem for GF (p) with heur ..."
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Cited by 63 (1 self)
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Recently, several algorithms using number field sieves have been given to factor a number n in heuristic expected time Ln[1/3; c], where Ln[v; c] = exp{(c + o(1))(log n) v (log log n) 1−v}, for n → ∞. In this paper we present an algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem for GF (p) with heuristic expected running time Lp[1/3; 3 2/3]. For numbers of a special form, there is an asymptotically slower but more practical version of the algorithm.
The Relationship Between Breaking the DiffieHellman Protocol and Computing Discrete Logarithms
, 1998
"... Both uniform and nonuniform results concerning the security of the DiffieHellman keyexchange protocol are proved. First, it is shown that in a cyclic group G of order jGj = Q p e i i , where all the multiple prime factors of jGj are polynomial in log jGj, there exists an algorithm that re ..."
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Cited by 38 (3 self)
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Both uniform and nonuniform results concerning the security of the DiffieHellman keyexchange protocol are proved. First, it is shown that in a cyclic group G of order jGj = Q p e i i , where all the multiple prime factors of jGj are polynomial in log jGj, there exists an algorithm that reduces the computation of discrete logarithms in G to breaking the DiffieHellman protocol in G and has complexity p maxf(p i )g \Delta (log jGj) O(1) , where (p) stands for the minimum of the set of largest prime factors of all the numbers d in the interval [p \Gamma 2 p p+1; p+2 p p+ 1]. Under the unproven but plausible assumption that (p) is polynomial in log p, this reduction implies that the DiffieHellman problem and the discrete logarithm problem are polynomialtime equivalent in G. Second, it is proved that the DiffieHellman problem and the discrete logarithm problem are equivalent in a uniform sense for groups whose orders belong to certain classes: there exists a p...
DiffieHellman Oracles
 ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY  CRYPTO '96 , LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1996
"... This paper consists of three parts. First, various types of DiffieHellman oracles for a cyclic group G and subgroups of G are defined and their equivalence is proved. In particular, the security of using a subgroup of G instead of G in the DiffieHellman protocol is investigated. Second, we derive ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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This paper consists of three parts. First, various types of DiffieHellman oracles for a cyclic group G and subgroups of G are defined and their equivalence is proved. In particular, the security of using a subgroup of G instead of G in the DiffieHellman protocol is investigated. Second, we derive several new conditions for the polynomialtime equivalence of breaking the DiffieHellman protocol and computing discrete logarithms in G which extend former results by den Boer and Maurer. Finally, efficient constructions of DiffieHellman groups with provable equivalence are described.
The DiffieHellman Protocol
 DESIGNS, CODES, AND CRYPTOGRAPHY
, 1999
"... The 1976 seminal paper of Diffie and Hellman is a landmark in the history of cryptography. They introduced the fundamental concepts of a trapdoor oneway function, a publickey cryptosystem, and a digital signature scheme. Moreover, they presented a protocol, the socalled DiffieHellman protoco ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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The 1976 seminal paper of Diffie and Hellman is a landmark in the history of cryptography. They introduced the fundamental concepts of a trapdoor oneway function, a publickey cryptosystem, and a digital signature scheme. Moreover, they presented a protocol, the socalled DiffieHellman protocol, allowing two parties who share no secret information initially, to generate a mutual secret key. This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the security of this protocol.
Discrete Logarithms: the Effectiveness of the Index Calculus Method
, 1996
"... . In this article we survey recent developments concerning the discrete logarithm problem. Both theoretical and practical results are discussed. We emphasize the case of finite fields, and in particular, recent modifications of the index calculus method, including the number field sieve and the func ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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. In this article we survey recent developments concerning the discrete logarithm problem. Both theoretical and practical results are discussed. We emphasize the case of finite fields, and in particular, recent modifications of the index calculus method, including the number field sieve and the function field sieve. We also provide a sketch of the some of the cryptographic schemes whose security depends on the intractibility of the discrete logarithm problem. 1 Introduction Let G be a cyclic group generated by an element t. The discrete logarithm problem in G is to compute for any b 2 G the least nonnegative integer e such that t e = b. In this case, we write log t b = e. Our purpose, in this paper, is to survey recent work on the discrete logarithm problem. Our approach is twofold. On the one hand, we consider the problem from a purely theoretical perspective. Indeed, the algorithms that have been developed to solve it not only explore the fundamental nature of one of the basic s...
On the reduction of composed relations from the number field sieve (Extended Abstract)
, 1995
"... ) Thomas F. Denny Universitat des Saarlandes FB 14 Informatik Postfach 15 11 50 66041 Saarbrucken Germany Volker Muller Department of C & O University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1 4th December 1995 Abstract In this paper we will present an algorithm which reduces the weight (t ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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) Thomas F. Denny Universitat des Saarlandes FB 14 Informatik Postfach 15 11 50 66041 Saarbrucken Germany Volker Muller Department of C & O University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1 4th December 1995 Abstract In this paper we will present an algorithm which reduces the weight (the number of non zero elements) of the matrices that arise from the number field sieve (NFS) for factoring integers [9] and computing discrete logarithm in IF p , where p is a prime ([3], [13]). In the so called Quadruple Large Prime Variation of NFS a graph algorithm computes sets of partial relations (relations with up to 4 large primes) that can each be combined to ordinary relations. The cardinality of these sets is not as low as possible due to time and place requirements. The algorithm presented in this paper reduces the cardinality of these sets up to 30 %. The resulting system of linear equations is therefore more sparse as before, which leads to significant improvements in the runni...
A Note on Cyclic Groups, Finite Fields, and the Discrete Logarithm Problem
 Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing
, 1992
"... We show how the discrete logarithm problem in some finite cyclic groups can easily be reduced to the discrete logarithm problem in a finite field. The cyclic groups that we consider are the set of points on a singular elliptic curve over a finite field, the set of points on a genus 0 curve over a fi ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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We show how the discrete logarithm problem in some finite cyclic groups can easily be reduced to the discrete logarithm problem in a finite field. The cyclic groups that we consider are the set of points on a singular elliptic curve over a finite field, the set of points on a genus 0 curve over a finite field given by the Pell equation, and certain subgroups of the general linear group.
Computing Discrete Logarithms with the General Number Field Sieve
, 1996
"... . The difficulty in solving the discrete logarithm problem is of extreme cryptographic importance since it is widely used in signature schemes, message encryption, key exchange, authentication and so on ([15], [17], [21], [29] etc.). The General Number Field Sieve (GNFS) is the asymptotically fastes ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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. The difficulty in solving the discrete logarithm problem is of extreme cryptographic importance since it is widely used in signature schemes, message encryption, key exchange, authentication and so on ([15], [17], [21], [29] etc.). The General Number Field Sieve (GNFS) is the asymptotically fastest known method to compute discrete logs mod p [18]. With the first implementation of the GNFS for discrete logs by using Schirokauer's improvement [27] we were able to show its practicability [31]. In this report we write about a new record in computing discrete logarithms mod p and some experimental data collected while finishing the precomputation step for breaking K. McCurley's 129digit challenge [10]. 1 Introduction Let p be a prime number and IF p (\Delta) be the cyclic multiplicative group of the prime field of p elements, which has order p \Gamma 1. Let a 2 IF p . In the case of b 2 hai, the multiplicative subgroup generated by a, there exist infinitely many x 2 IN 0 such th...