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21
A Framework for Dynamic Graph Drawing
 CONGRESSUS NUMERANTIUM
, 1992
"... Drawing graphs is an important problem that combines flavors of computational geometry and graph theory. Applications can be found in a variety of areas including circuit layout, network management, software engineering, and graphics. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows ..."
Abstract

Cited by 520 (40 self)
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Drawing graphs is an important problem that combines flavors of computational geometry and graph theory. Applications can be found in a variety of areas including circuit layout, network management, software engineering, and graphics. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows: ffl We devise a model for dynamic graph algorithms, based on performing queries and updates on an implicit representation of the drawing, and we show its applications. ffl We present several efficient dynamic drawing algorithms for trees, seriesparallel digraphs, planar stdigraphs, and planar graphs. These algorithms adopt a variety of representations (e.g., straightline, polyline, visibility), and update the drawing in a smooth way.
Tidier drawing of trees
 IEEE Trans. Software Eng
, 1981
"... AbstractVarious algorithms have been proposed for producing tidy drawings of treesdrawings that are aesthetically pleasing and use minimum drawing space. We show that these algorithms contain some difficulties that lead to aesthetically unpleasing, wider than necessary drawings. We then present a ..."
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Cited by 139 (0 self)
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AbstractVarious algorithms have been proposed for producing tidy drawings of treesdrawings that are aesthetically pleasing and use minimum drawing space. We show that these algorithms contain some difficulties that lead to aesthetically unpleasing, wider than necessary drawings. We then present a new algorithm with comparable time and storage requirements that produces tidier drawings. Generalizations to forests and mary trees are discussed, as are some problems in discretization when alphanumeric output devices are used. Index TernsData structures, trees, tree structures.
Automatic graph drawing and readability of diagrams
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
, 1988
"... AhtractDiagrams are widely used in several areas of computer wience, and their effectiveness is thoroughly recognized. One of the main qualities requested for them is readability; this is especially, but not exclusively, true in the area of information systems, where diagrams are used to model data ..."
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Cited by 92 (8 self)
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AhtractDiagrams are widely used in several areas of computer wience, and their effectiveness is thoroughly recognized. One of the main qualities requested for them is readability; this is especially, but not exclusively, true in the area of information systems, where diagrams are used to model data and functions of the application. Up to now, diagrams have been produced manually or with the aid of a graphic editor; in both caws placement of symbols and routing of connections are under responsibility of the designer. The goal of the work is to investigate how readability of diagrams can be achieved by means of automatic tools. Existing results in the literature are compared, and a comprehensive algorithmic approach to the problem is proposed. The algorithm presented draws graphs on a grid and is suitable for both undirected graphs and mixed graphs that contain as subgraphs hierarchic structures. Finally, several applications of a graphic tool that embodies the aforementioned facility are shown. I.
Optimal upward planarity testing of singlesource digraphs
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1998
"... Abstract. A digraph is upward planar if it has a planar drawing such that all the edges are monotone with respect to the vertical direction. Testing upward planarity and constructing upward planar drawings is important for displaying hierarchical network structures, which frequently arise in softwar ..."
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Cited by 34 (4 self)
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Abstract. A digraph is upward planar if it has a planar drawing such that all the edges are monotone with respect to the vertical direction. Testing upward planarity and constructing upward planar drawings is important for displaying hierarchical network structures, which frequently arise in software engineering, project management, and visual languages. In this paper we investigate upward planarity testing of singlesource digraphs; we provide a new combinatorial characterization of upward planarity and give an optimal algorithm for upward planarity testing. Our algorithm tests whether a singlesource digraph with n vertices is upward planar in O(n) sequential time, and in O(log n) time on a CRCW PRAM with n log log n / log n processors, using O(n) space. The algorithm also constructs an upward planar drawing if the test is successful. The previously known best result is an O(n2)time algorithm by Hutton and Lubiw [Proc. 2nd ACM–SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 203–211]. No efficient parallel algorithms for upward planarity testing were previously known.
Parking Functions, Empirical Processes, and the Width of Rooted Labeled Trees
"... This paper provides tight bounds for the moments of the width of rooted labeled trees with n nodes, answering an open question of Odlyzko and Wilf (1987). To this aim, we use one of the many onetoone correspondences between trees and parking functions, and also a precise coupling between parking f ..."
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Cited by 20 (5 self)
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This paper provides tight bounds for the moments of the width of rooted labeled trees with n nodes, answering an open question of Odlyzko and Wilf (1987). To this aim, we use one of the many onetoone correspondences between trees and parking functions, and also a precise coupling between parking functions and the empirical processes of mathematical statistics. Our result turns out to be a consequence of the strong convergence of empirical processes to the Brownian bridge (Komlos, Major and Tusnady, 1975).
Planar Upward Tree Drawings with Optimal Area
 Internat. J. Comput. Geom. Appl
, 1996
"... Rooted trees are usually drawn planar and upward, i.e., without crossings and without any parent placed below its child. In this paper we investigate the area requirement of planar upward drawings of rooted trees. We give tight upper and lower bounds on the area of various types of drawings, and pro ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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Rooted trees are usually drawn planar and upward, i.e., without crossings and without any parent placed below its child. In this paper we investigate the area requirement of planar upward drawings of rooted trees. We give tight upper and lower bounds on the area of various types of drawings, and provide lineartime algorithms for constructing optimal area drawings. Let T be a boundeddegree rooted tree with N nodes. Our results are summarized as follows: ffl We show that T admits a planar polyline upward grid drawing with area O(N ), and with width O(N ff ) for any prespecified constant ff such that 0 ! ff ! 1. ffl If T is a binary tree, we show that T admits a planar orthogonal upward grid drawing with area O(N log log N ). ffl We show that if T is ordered, it admits an O(N log N)area planar upward grid drawing that preserves the lefttoright ordering of the children of each node. ffl We show that all of the above area bounds are asymptotically optimal in the worst case. ffl ...
A Numerical Optimization Approach to General Graph Drawing
, 1999
"... Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as graph drawing, is that of transforming combinatorial graphs into geometric drawings for the purpose of visualization. Most published algorithms for drawing general graphs model the drawing problem with a physical analogy, representing a graph as a system of springs and other physical elements and then simulating the relaxation of this physical system. Solving the graph drawing problem involves both choosing a physical model and then using numerical optimization to simulate the physical system. In this
Drawing trees nicely with TEX
 T E X: Applications, Uses, Methods
, 1989
"... Various algorithms have been proposed for the difficult problem of producing aesthetically pleasing drawings of trees, see [15, 17] but implementations only exist as "special purpose software", designed for special environments. Therefore, many users resort to the drawing facilities available on mos ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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Various algorithms have been proposed for the difficult problem of producing aesthetically pleasing drawings of trees, see [15, 17] but implementations only exist as "special purpose software", designed for special environments. Therefore, many users resort to the drawing facilities available on most personal computers, but the figures obtained in this way still look "handdrawn"; their quality is inferior to the quality of the surrounding text that can be realized by today's high quality text processing systems. In this paper we present an entirely new solution that integrates a tree drawing algorithm into one of the best text processing systems available. More precisely, we present a T E X macro package TreeT E X that produces a drawing of a tree from a purely logical description. Our approach has three advantages. First, labels for nodes can be handled in a reasonable way. On the one hand, the tree drawing algorithm can compute the widths of the labels and take them into account for...
Aesthetic Layout of Generalized Trees
, 1993
"... This paper addresses the general issue of the aesthetic layout of such trees. Two algorithms are presented for the layout of generalized trees, and general issues, such as appropriate aesthetics, are discussed. The algorithms described are suitable for such tasks as the layout of class hierarchies, ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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This paper addresses the general issue of the aesthetic layout of such trees. Two algorithms are presented for the layout of generalized trees, and general issues, such as appropriate aesthetics, are discussed. The algorithms described are suitable for such tasks as the layout of class hierarchies, directory trees and tableaustyle proofs