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Plausibility Measures and Default Reasoning
 Journal of the ACM
, 1996
"... this paper: default reasoning. In recent years, a number of different semantics for defaults have been proposed, such as preferential structures, fflsemantics, possibilistic structures, and rankings, that have been shown to be characterized by the same set of axioms, known as the KLM properties. W ..."
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Cited by 90 (14 self)
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this paper: default reasoning. In recent years, a number of different semantics for defaults have been proposed, such as preferential structures, fflsemantics, possibilistic structures, and rankings, that have been shown to be characterized by the same set of axioms, known as the KLM properties. While this was viewed as a surprise, we show here that it is almost inevitable. In the framework of plausibility measures, we can give a necessary condition for the KLM axioms to be sound, and an additional condition necessary and sufficient to ensure that the KLM axioms are complete. This additional condition is so weak that it is almost always met whenever the axioms are sound. In particular, it is easily seen to hold for all the proposals made in the literature. Categories and Subject Descriptors: F.4.1 [Mathematical Logic and Formal Languages]:
On the Semantics of Arbitration
 International Journal of Algebra and Computation
, 1995
"... : Revision and update operators add new information to some old information represented by a logical theory. Katsuno and Mendelzon show that both revision and update operators can be characterized as accomplishing a minimal change in the old information to accommodate the new information. Arbitratio ..."
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Cited by 85 (4 self)
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: Revision and update operators add new information to some old information represented by a logical theory. Katsuno and Mendelzon show that both revision and update operators can be characterized as accomplishing a minimal change in the old information to accommodate the new information. Arbitration operators add two or more weighted informations together where the weights indicate the relative importance of the informations rather than a strict priority. This paper shows that arbitration operators can be also characterized as accomplishing a minimal change. The operator of modelfitting is also defined and analyzed in the paper. 1 Introduction Arbitration is the process of settling a conflict between two or more persons. Arbitration occurs in many situations. For example, settling a labor dispute by an outsider, reaching a verdict in a trial, evaluating several alternative research hypotheses, negotiating an international peace agreement, or setting the price of a product in a compe...
Iterated Belief Change Based on Epistemic Entrenchment
, 1994
"... In this paper it is argued that, in order to solve the problem of iterated belief change, both the belief state and its input should be represented as epistemic entrenchment (EE) relations. A belief revision operation is constructed that updates a given EE relation to a new one in light of an eviden ..."
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Cited by 85 (5 self)
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In this paper it is argued that, in order to solve the problem of iterated belief change, both the belief state and its input should be represented as epistemic entrenchment (EE) relations. A belief revision operation is constructed that updates a given EE relation to a new one in light of an evidential EE relation. It is shown that the operation in question satisfies generalized versions of the Gardenfors revision postulates. The account offered is motivated by Spohn's ordinal conditionalization functions, and can be seen as the Jeffrization of a proposal considered by Rott.
Modeling Agents as Qualitative Decision Makers
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... We investigate the semantic foundations of a method for modeling agents as entities with a mental state which was suggested by McCarthy and by Newell. Our goals are to formalize this modeling approach and its semantics, to understand the theoretical and practical issues that it raises, and to addres ..."
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Cited by 53 (0 self)
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We investigate the semantic foundations of a method for modeling agents as entities with a mental state which was suggested by McCarthy and by Newell. Our goals are to formalize this modeling approach and its semantics, to understand the theoretical and practical issues that it raises, and to address some of them. In particular, this requires specifying the model's parameters and how these parameters are to be assigned (i.e., their grounding). We propose a basic model in which the agent is viewed as a qualitative decision maker with beliefs, preferences, and decision strategy; and we show how these components would determine the agent's behavior. We ground this model in the agent's interaction with the world, namely, in its actions. This is done by viewing model construction as a constraint satisfaction problem in which we search for a model consistent with the agent's behavior and with our general background knowledge. In addition, we investigate the conditions under which a mental st...
Updates and counterfactuals
 In Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proc. Second International Conference (KR ’91
, 1991
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Distance Semantics for Belief Revision
, 1999
"... A vast and interesting family of natural semantics for belief revision is defined. Suppose one is given a distance d between any two models. One may then define the revision of a theory K by a formula ff as the theory defined by the set of all those models of ff that are closest, by d, to the set ..."
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Cited by 50 (2 self)
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A vast and interesting family of natural semantics for belief revision is defined. Suppose one is given a distance d between any two models. One may then define the revision of a theory K by a formula ff as the theory defined by the set of all those models of ff that are closest, by d, to the set of models of K. This family is characterized by a set of rationality postulates that extends the AGM postulates. The new postulates describe properties of iterated revisions. 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview and related work The aim of this paper is to investigate semantics and logical properties of theory revisions based on an underlying notion of distance between individual models. In many situations it is indeed reasonable to assume that the agent has some natural way to evaluate the distance between any two models of the logical language of interest. The distance between model m and model m 0 is a measure of how far m 0 appears to be from the point of view of m. This distance may me...
Iterated Revision and Minimal Change of Conditional Beliefs
 JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL LOGIC
, 1995
"... We describe a model of iterated belief revision that extends the AGM theory of revision to account for the effect of a revision on the conditional beliefs of an agent. In particular, this model ensures that an agent makes as few changes as possible to the conditional component of its belief set. Ado ..."
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Cited by 47 (0 self)
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We describe a model of iterated belief revision that extends the AGM theory of revision to account for the effect of a revision on the conditional beliefs of an agent. In particular, this model ensures that an agent makes as few changes as possible to the conditional component of its belief set. Adopting the Ramsey test, minimal conditional revision provides acceptance conditions for arbitrary rightnested conditionals. We show that problem of determining acceptance of any such nested conditional can be reduced to acceptance tests for unnested conditionals. Thus, iterated revision can be accomplished in a “virtual” manner, using uniterated revision.
A KnowledgeBased Framework for Belief Change  Part I: Foundations
 Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge: Proc. Fifth Conference
, 1994
"... We propose a general framework in which to study belief change. We begin by defining belief in terms of knowledge and plausibility: an agent believes ' if he knows that ' is true in all the worlds he considers most plausible. We then consider some properties defining the interaction betwee ..."
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Cited by 45 (11 self)
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We propose a general framework in which to study belief change. We begin by defining belief in terms of knowledge and plausibility: an agent believes ' if he knows that ' is true in all the worlds he considers most plausible. We then consider some properties defining the interaction between knowledge and plausibility, and show how these properties affect the properties of belief. In particular, we show that by assuming two of the most natural properties, belief becomes a KD45 operator. Finally, we add time to the picture. This gives us a framework in which we can talk about knowledge, plausibility (and hence belief), and time, which extends the framework of Halpern and Fagin [HF89] for modeling knowledge in multiagent systems. We show that our framework is quite expressive and lets us model in a natural way a number of different scenarios for belief change. For example, we show how we can capture an analogue to prior probabilities, which can be updated by "conditioning". In a related ...