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ANCESTRAL GRAPH MARKOV MODELS
, 2002
"... This paper introduces a class of graphical independence models that is closed under marginalization and conditioning but that contains all DAG independence models. This class of graphs, called maximal ancestral graphs, has two attractive features: there is at most one edge between each pair of verti ..."
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Cited by 79 (16 self)
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This paper introduces a class of graphical independence models that is closed under marginalization and conditioning but that contains all DAG independence models. This class of graphs, called maximal ancestral graphs, has two attractive features: there is at most one edge between each pair of vertices; every missing edge corresponds to an independence relation. These features lead to a simple parameterization of the corresponding set of distributions in the Gaussian case.
Chain Graph Models and their Causal Interpretations
 B
, 2001
"... Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are a number of simple and apparently plausible, but ultim ..."
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Cited by 51 (4 self)
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Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are a number of simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to awed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated as the equilibrium distribution of dynamic models with feedback. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for DAGs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have traditionally been used to model feedback in econometrics. Keywords: Causal model; cha...
On Block Ordering of Variables in Graphical Modelling
, 2004
"... In graphical modelling, the existence of substantive background knowledge on block ordering of variables is used to perform structural learning within the family of chain graphs in which every block corresponds to an undirected graph and edges joining vertices in different blocks are directed in acc ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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In graphical modelling, the existence of substantive background knowledge on block ordering of variables is used to perform structural learning within the family of chain graphs in which every block corresponds to an undirected graph and edges joining vertices in different blocks are directed in accordance with the ordering. We show that this practice may lead to an inappropriate restriction of the search space and introduce the concept of labelled block ordering B corresponding to a family of Bconsistent chain graphs in which every block may be either an undirected graph or a directed acyclic graph or, more generally, a chain graph. In this way we provide a flexible tool for specifying subsets of chain graphs, and we observe that the most relevant subsets of chain graphs considered in the literature are families of Bconsistent chain graphs for the appropriate choice of B. Structural learning within a family of Bconsistent chain graphs requires to deal with Markov equivalence. We provide a graphical characterisation of equivalence classes of Bconsistent chain graphs, namely the Bessential graphs, as well as a procedure to construct the Bessential graph for any given equivalence class of Bconsistent chain graphs. Both largest chain graphs and essential graphs turn out to be special cases of Bessential graphs.