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EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS FOR CLAUSELEARNING SAT SOLVERS
, 2004
"... Boolean satisfiability (SAT) is NPcomplete. No known algorithm for SAT is of polynomial time complexity. Yet, many of the SAT instances generated as a means of solving realworld electronic design automation problems are simple enough, structurally, that modern solvers can decide them efficiently. ..."
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Cited by 58 (0 self)
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Boolean satisfiability (SAT) is NPcomplete. No known algorithm for SAT is of polynomial time complexity. Yet, many of the SAT instances generated as a means of solving realworld electronic design automation problems are simple enough, structurally, that modern solvers can decide them efficiently. Consequently, SAT solvers are widely used in industry for logic verification. The most robust solver algorithms are poorly understood and only vaguely described in the literature of the field. We refine these algorithms, and present them clearly. We introduce several new techniques for Boolean constraint propagation that substantially improve solver efficiency. We explain why literal count decision strategies succeed, and on that basis, we introduce a new decision strategy that outperforms the state of the art. The culmination of this work is the most powerful SAT solver publically available.
Setting 2 variables at a time yields a new lower bound for random 3SAT (Extended Abstract)
 STOC
, 2000
"... Let X be a set of n Boolean variables and denote by C(X) the set of all 3clauses over X, i.e. the set of all 8(3) possible disjunctions of three distinct, noncomplementary literais from variables in X. Let F(n, m) be a random 3SAT formula formed by selecting, with replacement, m clauses uniformly ..."
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Cited by 35 (4 self)
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Let X be a set of n Boolean variables and denote by C(X) the set of all 3clauses over X, i.e. the set of all 8(3) possible disjunctions of three distinct, noncomplementary literais from variables in X. Let F(n, m) be a random 3SAT formula formed by selecting, with replacement, m clauses uniformly at random from C(X) and taking their conjunction. The satisfiability threshold conjecture asserts that there exists a constant ra such that as n+ c¢, F(n, rn) is satisfiable with probability that tends to 1 if r < ra, but unsatisfiable with probability that tends to 1 if r:> r3. Experimental evidence suggests rz ~ 4.2. We prove rz> 3.145 improving over the previous best lower bound r3> 3.003 due to Frieze and Suen. For this, we introduce a satisfiability heuristic that works iteratively, permanently setting the value of a pair of variables in each round. The framework we develop for the analysis of our heuristic allows us to also derive most previous lower bounds for random 3SAT in a uniform manner and with little effort.
The Complexity of Automated Reasoning
, 1989
"... This thesis explores the relative complexity of proofs produced by the automatic theorem proving procedures of analytic tableaux, linear resolution, the connection method, tree resolution and the DavisPutnam procedure. It is shown that tree resolution simulates the improved tableau procedure and th ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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This thesis explores the relative complexity of proofs produced by the automatic theorem proving procedures of analytic tableaux, linear resolution, the connection method, tree resolution and the DavisPutnam procedure. It is shown that tree resolution simulates the improved tableau procedure and that SLresolution and the connection method are equivalent to restrictions of the improved tableau method. The theorem by Tseitin that the DavisPutnam Procedure cannot be simulated by tree resolution is given an explicit and simplified proof. The hard examples for tree resolution are contradictions constructed from simple Tseitin graphs.
Clause Trees: a Tool for Understanding and Implementing Resolution in Automated Reasoning
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
"... A new methodology/data structure, the clause tree, is developed for automated reasoning based on resolution in first order logic. A clause tree T on a set S of clauses is a 4tuple , where N is a set of nodes, divided into clause nodes and atom nodes, E is a set of edges, each of which join ..."
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Cited by 7 (6 self)
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A new methodology/data structure, the clause tree, is developed for automated reasoning based on resolution in first order logic. A clause tree T on a set S of clauses is a 4tuple <N,E,L,M>, where N is a set of nodes, divided into clause nodes and atom nodes, E is a set of edges, each of which joins a clause node to an atom node, L is a labeling of N E which assigns to each clause node a clause of S, to each atom node an instance of an atom of some clause of S, and to each edge either + or . The edge joining a clause node to an atom node is labeled by the sign of the corresponding literal in the clause. A resolution is represented by unifying two atom nodes of different clause trees which represent complementary literals. The merge of two identical literals is represented by placing the path joining the two corresponding atom nodes into the set M of chosen merge paths. The tail of the merge path becomes a closed leaf, while the head remains an open leaf which can be resolved on. Th...
Hidden structure in unsatisfiable random 3SAT: An empirical study
 In ICTAI’04
, 2004
"... Recent advances in propositional satisfiability (SAT) include studying the hidden structure of unsatisfiable formulas, i.e. explaining why a given formula is unsatisfiable. Although theoretical work on the topic has been developed in the past, only recently two empirical successful approaches have b ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Recent advances in propositional satisfiability (SAT) include studying the hidden structure of unsatisfiable formulas, i.e. explaining why a given formula is unsatisfiable. Although theoretical work on the topic has been developed in the past, only recently two empirical successful approaches have been proposed: extracting unsatisfiable cores and identifying strong backdoors. An unsatisfiable core is a subset of clauses that defines a subformula that is also unsatisfiable, whereas a strong backdoor defines a subset of variables which assigned with all values allow concluding that the formula is unsatisfiable. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we study the relation between the search complexity of unsatisfiable random 3SAT formulas and the sizes of unsatisfiable cores and strong backdoors. For this purpose, we use an existing algorithm which uses an approximated approach for calculating these values. Second, we introduce a new algorithm that optimally reduces the size of unsatisfiable cores and strong backdoors, thus giving more accurate results. Experimental results indicate that the search complexity of unsatisfiable random 3SAT formulas is related with the size of unsatisfiable cores and strong backdoors. 1.
NP and Mathematics  a computational complexity perspective
 Proc. of the ICM 06
"... “P versus N P – a gift to mathematics from Computer Science” ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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“P versus N P – a gift to mathematics from Computer Science”
The Computational Complexity
"... Resolution is, due to its simplicity and its relation to several automated theorem proving algorithms, one of the best studied propositional proof systems. The most important complexity measure of a resolution proof is its size, the number of clauses used in the proof. ..."
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Resolution is, due to its simplicity and its relation to several automated theorem proving algorithms, one of the best studied propositional proof systems. The most important complexity measure of a resolution proof is its size, the number of clauses used in the proof.