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24
Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises
 Review of General Psychology
, 1998
"... Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples ..."
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Cited by 101 (0 self)
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Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples of its operation in several practical contexts. Possible explanations are considered, and the question of its utility or disutility is discussed. When men wish to construct or support a theory, how they torture facts into their service! (Mackay, 1852/ 1932, p. 552) Confirmation bias is perhaps the best known and most widely accepted notion of inferential error to come out of the literature on human reasoning. (Evans, 1989, p. 41) If one were to attempt to identify a single problematic aspect of human reasoning that deserves attention above all others, the confirmation bias would have to be among the candidates for consideration. Many have written about this bias, and it appears to be sufficiently strong and pervasive that one is led to wonder whether the bias, by itself, might account for a significant fraction of the disputes, altercations, and misunderstandings that occur among individuals, groups, and nations. Confirmation bias has been used in the psychological literature to refer to a variety of phenomena. Here I take the term to represent a generic concept that subsumes several more specific ideas that connote the inappropriate bolstering of hypotheses or beliefs whose truth is in question.
A MentionSynchronous Coreference Resolution Algorithm Based on the Bell Tree
 In Proc. of the ACL
, 2004
"... This paper proposes a new approach for coreference resolution which uses the Bell tree to represent the search space and casts the coreference resolution problem as finding the best path from the root of the Bell tree to the leaf nodes. A Maximum Entropy model is used to rank these paths. The corefe ..."
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Cited by 100 (9 self)
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This paper proposes a new approach for coreference resolution which uses the Bell tree to represent the search space and casts the coreference resolution problem as finding the best path from the root of the Bell tree to the leaf nodes. A Maximum Entropy model is used to rank these paths. The coreference performance on the 2002 and 2003 Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) data will be reported. We also train a coreference system using the MUC6 data and competitive results are obtained. 1
Mathematics by Experiment: Plausible Reasoning in the 21st Century, extended second edition, A K
 2008. EXPERIMENTATION AND COMPUTATION 19
, 2008
"... If mathematics describes an objective world just like physics, there is no reason why inductive methods should not be applied in mathematics just the same as in physics. (Kurt Gödel, 1951) Paper Revised 09–09–04 This paper is an extended version of a presentation made at ICME10, related work is elab ..."
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Cited by 41 (18 self)
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If mathematics describes an objective world just like physics, there is no reason why inductive methods should not be applied in mathematics just the same as in physics. (Kurt Gödel, 1951) Paper Revised 09–09–04 This paper is an extended version of a presentation made at ICME10, related work is elaborated in references [1–7]. 1 I shall generally explore experimental and heuristic mathematics and give (mostly) accessible, primarily visual and symbolic, examples. The emergence of powerful mathematical computing environments like Maple and Matlab, the growing
Object Recognition as ManytoMany Feature Matching
, 2006
"... Object recognition can be formulated as matching image features to model features. When recognition is exemplarbased, feature correspondence is onetoone. However, segmentation errors, articulation, scale difference, and withinclass deformation can yield image and model features which don’t matc ..."
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Cited by 35 (4 self)
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Object recognition can be formulated as matching image features to model features. When recognition is exemplarbased, feature correspondence is onetoone. However, segmentation errors, articulation, scale difference, and withinclass deformation can yield image and model features which don’t match onetoone but rather manytomany. Adopting a graphbased representation of a set of features, we present a matching algorithm that establishes manytomany correspondences between the nodes of two noisy, vertexlabeled weighted graphs. Our approach reduces the problem of manytomany matching of weighted graphs to that of manytomany matching of weighted point sets in a normed vector space. This is accomplished by embedding the initial weighted graphs into a normed vector space with low distortion using a novel embedding technique based on a spherical encoding of graph structure. Manytomany vector correspondences established by the Earth Mover’s Distance framework are mapped back into manytomany correspondences between graph nodes. Empirical evaluation of the algorithm on an extensive set of recognition trials, including a comparison with two competing graph matching approaches, demonstrates both the robustness and efficacy of the overall approach.
Nash equilibria in discrete routing games with convex latency functions
 In Proc. of the 31st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP), volume 3142 of LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. We study Nash equilibria in a discrete routing game that combines features of the two most famous models for noncooperative routing, the KP model [16] and the Wardrop model [27]. In our model, users share parallel links. A user strategy can be any probability distribution over the set of ..."
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Cited by 29 (8 self)
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Abstract. We study Nash equilibria in a discrete routing game that combines features of the two most famous models for noncooperative routing, the KP model [16] and the Wardrop model [27]. In our model, users share parallel links. A user strategy can be any probability distribution over the set of links. Each user tries to minimize its expected latency, where the latency on a link is described by an arbitrary nondecreasing, convex function. The social cost is defined as the sum of the users ’ expected latencies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mixed Nash equilibria for routing games have been studied in combination with nonlinear latency functions. As our main result, we show that for identical users the social cost of any Nash equilibrium is bounded by the social cost of the fully mixed Nash equilibrium. A Nash equilibrium is called fully mixed if each user chooses each link with nonzero probability. We present a complete characterization of the instances for which a fully mixed Nash equilibrium exists, and prove that (in case of its existence) it is unique. Moreover, we give bounds on the coordination ratio and show that several results for the Wardrop model can be carried over to our discrete model. 1
Some Probabilistic Aspects Of Set Partitions
 American Mathematical Monthly
, 1996
"... this paper, section (1.2) offers an elementary combinatorial proof of Dobinski's formula which seems simpler than other proofs in the literature (Rota [35], Berge [5], p. 44, Comtet [9], p. 211). This argument involves identities whose probabilistic interpretations are brought out later in the paper ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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this paper, section (1.2) offers an elementary combinatorial proof of Dobinski's formula which seems simpler than other proofs in the literature (Rota [35], Berge [5], p. 44, Comtet [9], p. 211). This argument involves identities whose probabilistic interpretations are brought out later in the paper. 1.1 Notation
Data Morphing: An Adaptive, CacheConscious Storage Technique
 In Proc. VLDB, 2003
, 2003
"... The number of processor cache misses has a critical impact on the performance of DBMSs running on servers with large mainmemory configurations. ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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The number of processor cache misses has a critical impact on the performance of DBMSs running on servers with large mainmemory configurations.
Combining Sets with Elements
 VERIFICATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE
, 2004
"... We address the problem of combining decision procedures for sets with decision procedures for objects that are not (necessarily) sets. We present NelsonOppenbased and tableaubased combination methods, we prove their correctness, analyze their complexity, and we describe heuristics that aim for ef ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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We address the problem of combining decision procedures for sets with decision procedures for objects that are not (necessarily) sets. We present NelsonOppenbased and tableaubased combination methods, we prove their correctness, analyze their complexity, and we describe heuristics that aim for efficiency.
Agent based cooperative theory formation in pure mathematics
 In Proceedings of the AISB00 Symposium on Creative & Cultural Aspects and Applications of AI & Cognitive Science
, 2000
"... The HR program, Colton et al. (1999), performs theory formation in domains of pure mathematics. Given only minimal information about a domain, it invents concepts, make conjectures, proves theorems and finds counterexamples to false conjectures. We present here a multiagent version of HR which may ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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The HR program, Colton et al. (1999), performs theory formation in domains of pure mathematics. Given only minimal information about a domain, it invents concepts, make conjectures, proves theorems and finds counterexamples to false conjectures. We present here a multiagent version of HR which may provide a model for how individual mathematicians perform separate investigations but communicate their results to the mathematical community, learning from others as they do. We detail the exhaustive categorisation problem to which we have applied a multiagent approach. 1
Attacking Unlinkability: The Importance of Context
"... Abstract. A system that protects the unlinkability of certain data items (e. g. identifiers of communication partners, messages, pseudonyms, transactions, votes) does not leak information that would enable an adversary to link these items. The adversary could, however, take advantage of hints from t ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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Abstract. A system that protects the unlinkability of certain data items (e. g. identifiers of communication partners, messages, pseudonyms, transactions, votes) does not leak information that would enable an adversary to link these items. The adversary could, however, take advantage of hints from the context in which the system operates. In this paper, we introduce a new metric that enables one to quantify the (un)linkability of the data items and, based on this, we consider the effect of some simple contextual hints. 1