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231
Quantum Error Correction Via Codes Over GF(4)
, 1997
"... The problem of finding quantumerrorcorrecting codes is transformed into the problem of finding additive codes over the field GF(4) which are selforthogonal with respect to a certain trace inner product. Many new codes and new bounds are presented, as well as a table of upper and lower bounds on s ..."
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Cited by 312 (21 self)
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The problem of finding quantumerrorcorrecting codes is transformed into the problem of finding additive codes over the field GF(4) which are selforthogonal with respect to a certain trace inner product. Many new codes and new bounds are presented, as well as a table of upper and lower bounds on such codes of length up to 30 qubits.
Faulttolerant quantum computation by anyons
, 2003
"... A twodimensional quantum system with anyonic excitations can be considered as a quantum computer. Unitary transformations can be performed by moving the excitations around each other. Measurements can be performed by joining excitations in pairs and observing the result of fusion. Such computation ..."
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Cited by 230 (3 self)
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A twodimensional quantum system with anyonic excitations can be considered as a quantum computer. Unitary transformations can be performed by moving the excitations around each other. Measurements can be performed by joining excitations in pairs and observing the result of fusion. Such computation is faulttolerant by its physical nature.
Reliable quantum computers
 Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
, 1998
"... The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mist ..."
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Cited by 166 (3 self)
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The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per quantum gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. A quantum computer storing about 106 qubits, with a probability of error per quantum gate of order 106, would be a formidable factoring engine. Even a smaller lessaccurate quantum computer would be able to perform many useful tasks. This paper is based on a talk presented at the ITP Conference on Quantum Coherence
A modular functor which is universal for quantum computation
 Comm. Math. Phys
"... Abstract: We show that the topological modular functor from Witten–Chern–Simons theory is universal for quantum computation in the sense that a quantum circuit computation can be efficiently approximated by an intertwining action of a braid on the functor’s state space. A computational model based o ..."
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Cited by 121 (18 self)
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Abstract: We show that the topological modular functor from Witten–Chern–Simons theory is universal for quantum computation in the sense that a quantum circuit computation can be efficiently approximated by an intertwining action of a braid on the functor’s state space. A computational model based on Chern–Simons theory at a fifth root of unity is defined and shown to be polynomially equivalent to the quantum circuit model. The chief technical advance: the density of the irreducible sectors of the Jones representation has topological implications which will be considered elsewhere. 1.
Efficient simulation of quantum systems by quantum computers
, 1998
"... We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantummechanical manyparticle system can be simulated precisely and efficiently on a quantum computer. The time needed for such a simulation is comparable to the time of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system, a per ..."
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Cited by 80 (0 self)
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We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantummechanical manyparticle system can be simulated precisely and efficiently on a quantum computer. The time needed for such a simulation is comparable to the time of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system, a performance which can’t be expected from any classical simulation of a quantum system. We then show how quantities of interest, like the energy spectrum of a system, can be obtained. We also indicate that ultimately the simulation of quantum field theory might be possible on large quantum computers.
Fast parallel circuits for the quantum Fourier transform
 PROCEEDINGS 41ST ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (FOCS’00)
, 2000
"... We give new bounds on the circuit complexity of the quantum Fourier transform (QFT). We give an upper bound of O(log n + log log(1/ε)) on the circuit depth for computing an approximation of the QFT with respect to the modulus 2 n with error bounded by ε. Thus, even for exponentially small error, our ..."
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Cited by 70 (1 self)
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We give new bounds on the circuit complexity of the quantum Fourier transform (QFT). We give an upper bound of O(log n + log log(1/ε)) on the circuit depth for computing an approximation of the QFT with respect to the modulus 2 n with error bounded by ε. Thus, even for exponentially small error, our circuits have depth O(log n). The best previous depth bound was O(n), even for approximations with constant error. Moreover, our circuits have size O(n log(n/ε)). We also give an upper bound of O(n(log n) 2 log log n) on the circuit size of the exact QFT modulo 2 n, for which the best previous bound was O(n 2). As an application of the above depth bound, we show that Shor’s factoring algorithm may be based on quantum circuits with depth only O(log n) and polynomialsize, in combination with classical polynomialtime pre and postprocessing. In the language of computational complexity, this implies that factoring is in the complexity class ZPP BQNC, where BQNC is the class of problems computable with boundederror probability by quantum circuits with polylogarithmic depth and polynomial size. Finally, we prove an Ω(log n) lower bound on the depth complexity of approximations of the
Improved simulation of stabilizer circuits
 Phys. Rev. Lett
"... The GottesmanKnill theorem says that a stabilizer circuit—that is, a quantum circuit consisting solely of CNOT, Hadamard, and phase gates—can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. This paper improves that theorem in several directions. • By removing the need for Gaussian elimination, we ..."
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Cited by 65 (6 self)
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The GottesmanKnill theorem says that a stabilizer circuit—that is, a quantum circuit consisting solely of CNOT, Hadamard, and phase gates—can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. This paper improves that theorem in several directions. • By removing the need for Gaussian elimination, we make the simulation algorithm much faster at the cost of a factor2 increase in the number of bits needed to represent a state. We have implemented the improved algorithm in a freelyavailable program called CHP (CNOTHadamardPhase), which can handle thousands of qubits easily. • We show that the problem of simulating stabilizer circuits is complete for the classical complexity class ⊕L, which means that stabilizer circuits are probably not even universal for classical computation. • We give efficient algorithms for computing the inner product between two stabilizer states, putting any nqubit stabilizer circuit into a “canonical form ” that requires at most O ( n 2 /log n) gates, and other useful tasks. • We extend our simulation algorithm to circuits acting on mixed states, circuits containing a limited number of nonstabilizer gates, and circuits acting on general tensorproduct initial states but containing only a limited number of measurements. 1
Nonbinary stabilizer codes over finite fields
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2006
"... One formidable difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. In past years, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes had been derived as binary stabilizer codes. Faulttolerant quantum comput ..."
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Cited by 53 (11 self)
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One formidable difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. In past years, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes had been derived as binary stabilizer codes. Faulttolerant quantum computation prompted the study of nonbinary quantum codes, but the theory of such codes is not as advanced as that of binary quantum codes. This paper describes the basic theory of stabilizer codes over finite fields. The relation between stabilizer codes and general quantum codes is clarified by introducing a Galois theory for these objects. A characterization of nonbinary stabilizer codes over Fq in terms of classical codes over F q 2 is provided that generalizes the wellknown notion of additive codes over F4 of the binary case. This paper derives lower and upper bounds on the minimum distance of stabilizer codes, gives several code constructions, and derives numerous families of stabilizer codes, including quantum Hamming codes, quadratic residue codes, quantum Melas codes, quantum BCH codes, and quantum character codes. The puncturing theory by Rains is generalized to additive codes that are not necessarily pure. Bounds on the maximal length of maximum distance separable stabilizer codes are given. A discussion of open problems concludes this paper. 1