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53
DavenportSchinzel Sequences and Their Geometric Applications
, 1998
"... An (n; s) DavenportSchinzel sequence, for positive integers n and s, is a sequence composed of n distinct symbols with the properties that no two adjacent elements are equal, and that it does not contain, as a (possibly noncontiguous) subsequence, any alternation a \Delta \Delta \Delta b \Delta \ ..."
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Cited by 418 (116 self)
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An (n; s) DavenportSchinzel sequence, for positive integers n and s, is a sequence composed of n distinct symbols with the properties that no two adjacent elements are equal, and that it does not contain, as a (possibly noncontiguous) subsequence, any alternation a \Delta \Delta \Delta b \Delta \Delta \Delta a \Delta \Delta \Delta b \Delta \Delta \Delta of length s + 2 between two distinct symbols a and b. The close relationship between DavenportSchinzel sequences and the combinatorial structure of lower envelopes of collections of functions make the sequences very attractive because a variety of geometric problems can be formulated in terms of lower envelopes. A nearlinear bound on the maximum length of DavenportSchinzel sequences enable us to derive sharp bounds on the combinatorial structure underlying various geometric problems, which in turn yields efficient algorithms for these problems.
Arrangements and Their Applications
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... The arrangement of a finite collection of geometric objects is the decomposition of the space into connected cells induced by them. We survey combinatorial and algorithmic properties of arrangements of arcs in the plane and of surface patches in higher dimensions. We present many applications of arr ..."
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Cited by 76 (20 self)
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The arrangement of a finite collection of geometric objects is the decomposition of the space into connected cells induced by them. We survey combinatorial and algorithmic properties of arrangements of arcs in the plane and of surface patches in higher dimensions. We present many applications of arrangements to problems in motion planning, visualization, range searching, molecular modeling, and geometric optimization. Some results involving planar arrangements of arcs have been presented in a companion chapter in this book, and are extended in this chapter to higher dimensions. Work by P.A. was supported by Army Research Office MURI grant DAAH049610013, by a Sloan fellowship, by an NYI award, and by a grant from the U.S.Israeli Binational Science Foundation. Work by M.S. was supported by NSF Grants CCR9122103 and CCR9311127, by a MaxPlanck Research Award, and by grants from the U.S.Israeli Binational Science Foundation, the Israel Science Fund administered by the Israeli Ac...
On approximating the depth and related problems
 SIAM J. Comput
"... We study the question of finding a deepest point in an arrangement of regions, and provide a fast algorithm for this problem using random sampling, showing it sufficient to solve this problem when the deepest point is shallow. This implies, among other results, a fast algorithm for solving linear pr ..."
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Cited by 63 (11 self)
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We study the question of finding a deepest point in an arrangement of regions, and provide a fast algorithm for this problem using random sampling, showing it sufficient to solve this problem when the deepest point is shallow. This implies, among other results, a fast algorithm for solving linear programming with violations approximately. We also use this technique to approximate the disk covering the largest number of red points, while avoiding all the blue points, given two such sets in the plane. Using similar techniques imply that approximate range counting queries have roughly the same time and space complexity as emptiness range queries. 1
New Bounds for Lower Envelopes in Three Dimensions, with Applications to Visibility in Terrains
 Geom
, 1997
"... We consider the problem of bounding the complexity of the lower envelope of n surface patches in 3space, all algebraic of constant maximum degree, and bounded by algebraic arcs of constant maximum degree, with the additional property that the interiors of any triple of these surfaces intersect i ..."
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Cited by 59 (25 self)
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We consider the problem of bounding the complexity of the lower envelope of n surface patches in 3space, all algebraic of constant maximum degree, and bounded by algebraic arcs of constant maximum degree, with the additional property that the interiors of any triple of these surfaces intersect in at most two points. We show that the number of vertices on the lower envelope of n such surface patches is O(n 2 \Delta 2 c p log n ), for some constant c depending on the shape and degree of the surface patches. We apply this result to obtain an upper bound on the combinatorial complexity of the `lower envelope' of the space of all rays in 3space that lie above a given polyhedral terrain K with n edges. This envelope consists of all rays that touch the terrain (but otherwise lie above it). We show that the combinatorial complexity of this rayenvelope is O(n 3 \Delta 2 c p log n ) for some constant c; in particular, there are at most that many rays that pass above th...
Vertical decomposition of shallow levels in 3dimensional arrangements and its applications
 SIAM J. Comput
"... Let F be a collection of n bivariate algebraic functions of constant maximum degree. We show that the combinatorial complexity of the vertical decomposition of the ≤klevel of the arrangement A(F) is O(k 3+ε ψ(n/k)), for any ε> 0, where ψ(r) is the maximum complexity of the lower envelope of a subse ..."
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Cited by 57 (15 self)
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Let F be a collection of n bivariate algebraic functions of constant maximum degree. We show that the combinatorial complexity of the vertical decomposition of the ≤klevel of the arrangement A(F) is O(k 3+ε ψ(n/k)), for any ε> 0, where ψ(r) is the maximum complexity of the lower envelope of a subset of at most r functions of F. This bound is nearly optimal in the worst case, and implies the existence of shallow cuttings, in the sense of [52], of small size in arrangements of bivariate algebraic functions. We also present numerous applications of these results, including: (i) data structures for several generalized threedimensional rangesearching problems; (ii) dynamic data structures for planar nearest and farthestneighbor searching under various fairly general distance functions; (iii) an improved (nearquadratic) algorithm for minimumweight bipartite Euclidean matching in the plane; and (iv) efficient algorithms for certain geometric optimization problems in static and dynamic settings.
LowDimensional Linear Programming with Violations
 In Proc. 43th Annu. IEEE Sympos. Found. Comput. Sci
, 2002
"... Two decades ago, Megiddo and Dyer showed that linear programming in 2 and 3 dimensions (and subsequently, any constant number of dimensions) can be solved in linear time. In this paper, we consider linear programming with at most k violations: finding a point inside all but at most k of n given half ..."
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Cited by 45 (3 self)
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Two decades ago, Megiddo and Dyer showed that linear programming in 2 and 3 dimensions (and subsequently, any constant number of dimensions) can be solved in linear time. In this paper, we consider linear programming with at most k violations: finding a point inside all but at most k of n given halfspaces. We give a simple algorithm in 2d that runs in O((n + k ) log n) expected time; this is faster than earlier algorithms by Everett, Robert, and van Kreveld (1993) and Matousek (1994) and is probably nearoptimal for all k n=2. A (theoretical) extension of our algorithm in 3d runs in near O(n + k ) expected time. Interestingly, the idea is based on concavechain decompositions (or covers) of the ( k)level, previously used in proving combinatorial klevel bounds.
Constructing Levels in Arrangements and Higher Order Voronoi Diagrams
 SIAM J. COMPUT
, 1994
"... We give simple randomized incremental algorithms for computing the klevel in an arrangement of n hyperplanes in two and threedimensional space. The expected running time of our algorithms is O(nk+nff(n) log n) for the planar case, and O(nk 2 +n log 3 n) for the threedimensional case. Both bo ..."
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Cited by 42 (10 self)
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We give simple randomized incremental algorithms for computing the klevel in an arrangement of n hyperplanes in two and threedimensional space. The expected running time of our algorithms is O(nk+nff(n) log n) for the planar case, and O(nk 2 +n log 3 n) for the threedimensional case. Both bounds are optimal unless k is very small. The algorithm generalizes to computing the klevel in an arrangement of discs or xmonotone Jordan curves in the plane. Our approach can also be used to compute the klevel; this yields a randomized algorithm for computing the orderk Voronoi diagram of n points in the plane in expected time O(k(n \Gamma k) log n + n log 3 n).
On levels in arrangements of lines, segments, planes, and triangles
 Geom
, 1998
"... We consider the problem of bounding the complexity of the kth level in an arrangement of n curves or surfaces, a problem dual to, and extending, the wellknown kset problem. (a) We review and simplify some old proofs in new disguise and give new proofs of the bound O(n p k + 1) for the complexity ..."
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Cited by 42 (21 self)
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We consider the problem of bounding the complexity of the kth level in an arrangement of n curves or surfaces, a problem dual to, and extending, the wellknown kset problem. (a) We review and simplify some old proofs in new disguise and give new proofs of the bound O(n p k + 1) for the complexity of the kth level in an arrangement of n lines. (b) We derive an improved version of Lov'asz Lemma in any dimension, and use it to prove a new bound, O(n 2
The Union Of Convex Polyhedra In Three Dimensions
, 1997
"... . We show that the number of vertices, edges, and faces of the union of k convex polyhedra in 3space, having a total of n faces, is O(k 3 + kn log k). This bound is almost tight in the worst case, as there exist collections of polyhedra with## k 3 + kn#(k)) union complexity. We also describe a ..."
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Cited by 38 (24 self)
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. We show that the number of vertices, edges, and faces of the union of k convex polyhedra in 3space, having a total of n faces, is O(k 3 + kn log k). This bound is almost tight in the worst case, as there exist collections of polyhedra with## k 3 + kn#(k)) union complexity. We also describe a rather simple randomized incremental algorithm for computing the boundary of the union in O(k 3 + kn log k log n) expected time. Key words. combinatorial geometry, computational geometry, combinatorial complexity, convex polyhedra, geometric algorithms, randomized algorithms AMS subject classifications. 52B10, 52B55, 65Y25, 68Q25, 68U05 PII. S0097539793250755 1. Combinatorial bounds. Let P = {P 1 , . . . , P k } be a family of k convex polyhedra in 3space, let n i be the number of faces of P i , and let n = # k i=1 n i . Put U = # P. By the combinatorial complexity of a polyhedral set we mean the total number of its vertices, edges, and faces. Our main result is the followin...
On lazy randomized incremental construction
 In Proc. 26th Annu. ACM Sympos. Theory Comput
, 1994
"... We introduce a new type of randomized incremental algorithms. Contrary to standard randomized incremental algorithms, these lazy randomized incremental algorithms are suited for computing structures that have a `nonlocal' definition. In order to analyze these algorithms we generalize some results o ..."
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Cited by 32 (8 self)
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We introduce a new type of randomized incremental algorithms. Contrary to standard randomized incremental algorithms, these lazy randomized incremental algorithms are suited for computing structures that have a `nonlocal' definition. In order to analyze these algorithms we generalize some results on random sampling to such situations. We apply our techniques to obtain efficient algorithms for the computation of single cells in arrangements of segments in the plane, single cells in arrangements of triangles in space, and zones in arrangements of hyperplanes. We also prove combinatorial bounds on the complexity of what we call the (6k)cell in arrangements of segments in the plane or triangles in space; this is the set of all points on the segments (triangles) that can reach the origin with a path that crosses at most k, 1 segments (triangles).