Results 1  10
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74
Atomic decomposition by basis pursuit
 SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing
, 1998
"... Abstract. The timefrequency and timescale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries — stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several meth ..."
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Cited by 1660 (43 self)
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Abstract. The timefrequency and timescale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries — stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several methods for decomposition have been proposed, including the method of frames (MOF), Matching pursuit (MP), and, for special dictionaries, the best orthogonal basis (BOB). Basis Pursuit (BP) is a principle for decomposing a signal into an “optimal ” superposition of dictionary elements, where optimal means having the smallest l 1 norm of coefficients among all such decompositions. We give examples exhibiting several advantages over MOF, MP, and BOB, including better sparsity and superresolution. BP has interesting relations to ideas in areas as diverse as illposed problems, in abstract harmonic analysis, total variation denoising, and multiscale edge denoising. BP in highly overcomplete dictionaries leads to largescale optimization problems. With signals of length 8192 and a wavelet packet dictionary, one gets an equivalent linear program of size 8192 by 212,992. Such problems can be attacked successfully only because of recent advances in linear programming by interiorpoint methods. We obtain reasonable success with a primaldual logarithmic barrier method and conjugategradient solver.
The curvelet transform for image denoising
 IEEE TRANS. IMAGE PROCESS
, 2002
"... We describe approximate digital implementations of two new mathematical transforms, namely, the ridgelet transform [2] and the curvelet transform [6], [5]. Our implementations offer exact reconstruction, stability against perturbations, ease of implementation, and low computational complexity. A cen ..."
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Cited by 284 (38 self)
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We describe approximate digital implementations of two new mathematical transforms, namely, the ridgelet transform [2] and the curvelet transform [6], [5]. Our implementations offer exact reconstruction, stability against perturbations, ease of implementation, and low computational complexity. A central tool is Fourierdomain computation of an approximate digital Radon transform. We introduce a very simple interpolation in Fourier space which takes Cartesian samples and yields samples on a rectopolar grid, which is a pseudopolar sampling set based on a concentric squares geometry. Despite the crudeness of our interpolation, the visual performance is surprisingly good. Our ridgelet transform applies to the Radon transform a special overcomplete wavelet pyramid whose wavelets have compact support in the frequency domain. Our curvelet transform uses our ridgelet transform as a component step, and implements curvelet subbands using a filter bank of à trous wavelet filters. Our philosophy throughout is that transforms should be overcomplete, rather than critically sampled. We apply these digital transforms to the denoising of some standard images embedded in white noise. In the tests reported here, simple thresholding of the curvelet coefficients is very competitive with “state of the art ” techniques based on wavelets, including thresholding of decimated or undecimated wavelet transforms and also including treebased Bayesian posterior mean methods. Moreover, the curvelet reconstructions exhibit higher perceptual quality than waveletbased reconstructions, offering visually sharper images and, in particular, higher quality recovery of edges and of faint linear and curvilinear features. Existing theory for curvelet and ridgelet transforms suggests that these new approaches can outperform wavelet methods in certain image reconstruction problems. The empirical results reported here are in encouraging agreement.
Sparse Geometric Image Representations with Bandelets
, 2004
"... This paper introduces a new class of bases, called bandelet bases, which decompose the image along multiscale vectors that are elongated in the direction of a geometric flow. This geometric flow indicates directions in which the image grey levels have regular variations. The image decomposition in ..."
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Cited by 148 (4 self)
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This paper introduces a new class of bases, called bandelet bases, which decompose the image along multiscale vectors that are elongated in the direction of a geometric flow. This geometric flow indicates directions in which the image grey levels have regular variations. The image decomposition in a bandelet basis is implemented with a fast subband filtering algorithm. Bandelet bases lead to optimal approximation rates for geometrically regular images. For image compression and noise removal applications, the geometric flow is optimized with fast algorithms, so that the resulting bandelet basis produces a minimum distortion. Comparisons are made with wavelet image compression and noise removal algorithms.
Fast Discrete Curvelet Transforms
, 2005
"... This paper describes two digital implementations of a new mathematical transform, namely, the second generation curvelet transform [12, 10] in two and three dimensions. The first digital transformation is based on unequallyspaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while the second is based on the wrap ..."
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Cited by 114 (9 self)
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This paper describes two digital implementations of a new mathematical transform, namely, the second generation curvelet transform [12, 10] in two and three dimensions. The first digital transformation is based on unequallyspaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while the second is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. The two implementations essentially differ by the choice of spatial grid used to translate curvelets at each scale and angle. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. And both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in O(n 2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity. Our digital transformations improve upon earlier implementations—based upon the first generation of curvelets—in the sense that they are conceptually simpler, faster and far less redundant. The software CurveLab, which implements both transforms presented in this paper, is available at
Approximation of functions over redundant dictionaries using coherence
 Proc. of SODA
, 2003
"... ..."
Recovering Edges in IllPosed Inverse Problems: Optimality of Curvelet Frames
, 2000
"... We consider a model problem of recovering a function f(x1,x2) from noisy Radon data. The function f to be recovered is assumed smooth apart from a discontinuity along a C2 curve – i.e. an edge. We use the continuum white noise model, with noise level ɛ. Traditional linear methods for solving such in ..."
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Cited by 50 (14 self)
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We consider a model problem of recovering a function f(x1,x2) from noisy Radon data. The function f to be recovered is assumed smooth apart from a discontinuity along a C2 curve – i.e. an edge. We use the continuum white noise model, with noise level ɛ. Traditional linear methods for solving such inverse problems behave poorly in the presence of edges. Qualitatively, the reconstructions are blurred near the edges; quantitatively, they give in our model Mean Squared Errors (MSEs) that tend to zero with noise level ɛ only as O(ɛ1/2)asɛ → 0. A recent innovation – nonlinear shrinkage in the wavelet domain – visually improves edge sharpness and improves MSE convergence to O(ɛ2/3). However, as we show here, this rate is not optimal. In fact, essentially optimal performance is obtained by deploying the recentlyintroduced tight frames of curvelets in this setting. Curvelets are smooth, highly anisotropic elements ideally suited for detecting and synthesizing curved edges. To deploy them in the Radon setting, we construct a curveletbased biorthogonal decomposition
Sparse components of images and optimal atomic decomposition
 Constr. Approx
"... Recently, Field, Lewicki, Olshausen, and Sejnowski have reported efforts to identify the “Sparse Components ” of image data. Their empirical findings indicate that such components have elongated shapes and assume a wide range of positions, orientations, and scales. To date, Sparse Components Analysi ..."
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Cited by 49 (5 self)
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Recently, Field, Lewicki, Olshausen, and Sejnowski have reported efforts to identify the “Sparse Components ” of image data. Their empirical findings indicate that such components have elongated shapes and assume a wide range of positions, orientations, and scales. To date, Sparse Components Analysis (SCA) has only been conducted on databases of small (e.g. 16by16) image patches and there seems limited prospect of dramatically increased resolving power. In this article, we apply mathematical analysis to a specific formalization of SCA using synthetic image models, hoping to gain insight into what might emerge from a higherresolution SCA based on n by n image patches for large n but constant field of view. In our formalization, we study a class of objects F in a functional space; they are to be represented by linear combinations of atoms from an overcomplete dictionary, and sparsity is measured by the ℓ p norm of the coefficients in the linear combination. We focus on the class F = Star α of blackandwhite images with the black region consisting of a starshaped set with αsmooth boundary. We aim to find an optimal dictionary, one achieving the optimal
The multiscale structure of nondifferentiable image manifolds
 in Proc. Wavelets XI at SPIE Optics and Photonics
, 2005
"... In this paper, we study families of images generated by varying a parameter that controls the appearance of the object/scene in each image. Each image is viewed as a point in highdimensional space; the family of images forms a lowdimensional submanifold that we call an image appearance manifold (I ..."
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Cited by 42 (20 self)
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In this paper, we study families of images generated by varying a parameter that controls the appearance of the object/scene in each image. Each image is viewed as a point in highdimensional space; the family of images forms a lowdimensional submanifold that we call an image appearance manifold (IAM). We conduct a detailed study of some representative IAMs generated by translations/rotations of simple objects in the plane and by rotations of objects in 3D space. Our central, somewhat surprising, finding is that IAMs generated by images with sharp edges are nowhere differentiable. Moreover, IAMs have an inherent multiscale structure in that approximate tangent planes fitted to ɛneighborhoods continually twist off into new dimensions as the scale parameter ɛ varies. We explore and explain this phenomenon. An additional, more exotic kind of local nondifferentiability happens at some exceptional parameter points where occlusions cause image edges to disappear. These nondifferentiabilities help to understand some key phenomena in image processing. They imply that Newton’s method will not work in general for image registration, but that a multiscale Newton’s method will work. Such a multiscale Newton’s method is similar to existing coarsetofine differential estimation algorithms for image registration; the manifold perspective offers a wellfounded theoretical motivation for the multiscale approach and allows quantitative study of convergence and approximation. The manifold viewpoint is also generalizable to other image understanding problems.
Directionlets: Anisotropic MultiDirectional Representation With Separable Filtering
 Ph.D. dissertation, School Comput. Commun. Sci., Swiss Federal Inst. Technol. Lausanne (EPFL
, 2005
"... Abstract—In spite of the success of the standard wavelet transform (WT) in image processing in recent years, the efficiency of its representation is limited by the spatial isotropy of its basis functions built in the horizontal and vertical directions. Onedimensional (1D) discontinuities in images ..."
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Cited by 41 (7 self)
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Abstract—In spite of the success of the standard wavelet transform (WT) in image processing in recent years, the efficiency of its representation is limited by the spatial isotropy of its basis functions built in the horizontal and vertical directions. Onedimensional (1D) discontinuities in images (edges and contours) that are very important elements in visual perception, intersect too many wavelet basis functions and lead to a nonsparse representation. To efficiently capture these anisotropic geometrical structures characterized by many more than the horizontal and vertical directions, a more complex multidirectional (MDIR) and anisotropic transform is required. We present a new latticebased perfect reconstruction and critically sampled anisotropic MDIR WT. The transform retains the separable filtering and subsampling and the simplicity of computations and filter design from the standard twodimensional WT, unlike in the case of some other directional transform constructions (e.g., curvelets, contourlets, or edgelets). The corresponding anisotropic basis unctions (directionlets) have directional vanishing moments along any two directions with rational slopes. Furthermore, we show that this novel transform provides an efficient tool for nonlinear approximation of images, achieving the approximation power ( 1 55), which, while slower than the optimal rate ( 2), is much better than ( 1) achieved with wavelets, but at similar complexity. Index Terms—Directional vanishing moments, directionlets, filter banks, geometry, multidirection, multiresolution, separable filtering, sparse image representation, wavelets. I.
ON THE COMPRESSION OF TWODIMENSIONAL PIECEWISE SMOOTH FUNCTIONS
, 2001
"... It is well known that wavelets provide good nonlinear approximation of onedimensional (1D) piecewise smooth functions. However, it has been shown that the use of a basis with good approximation properties does not necessarily lead to a good compression algorithm. The situation in 2D is much more ..."
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Cited by 39 (4 self)
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It is well known that wavelets provide good nonlinear approximation of onedimensional (1D) piecewise smooth functions. However, it has been shown that the use of a basis with good approximation properties does not necessarily lead to a good compression algorithm. The situation in 2D is much more complicated since wavelets are not good for modeling piecewise smooth signals (where discontinuities are along smooth curves). The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of compression algorithms for 2D piecewise smooth functions directly in a rate distortion context. We consider some simple image models and compute rate distortion bounds achievable using oracle based methods. We then present a practical compression algorithm based on optimal quadtree decomposition that, in some cases, achieve the oracle performance.