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On Fast and Provably Secure Message Authentication Based on Universal Hashing
 In Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO ’96
, 1996
"... There are wellknown techniques for message authentication using universal hash functions. This approach seems very promising, as it provides schemes that are both efficient and provably secure under reasonable assumptions. This paper contributes to this line of research in two ways. First, it analy ..."
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There are wellknown techniques for message authentication using universal hash functions. This approach seems very promising, as it provides schemes that are both efficient and provably secure under reasonable assumptions. This paper contributes to this line of research in two ways. First, it analyzes the basic construction and some variants under more realistic and practical assumptions. Second, it shows how these schemes can be efficiently implemented, and it reports on the results of empirical performance tests that demonstrate that these schemes are competitive with other commonly employed schemes whose security is less wellestablished. 1 Introduction Message Authentication. Message authentication schemes are an important security tool. As more and more data is being transmitted over networks, the need for secure, highspeed, softwarebased message authentication is becoming more acute. The setting for message authentication is the following. Two parties A and B agree on a secre...
LubyRackoff backwards: Increasing security by making block ciphers noninvertible
 ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGYEUROCRYPT '98 PROCEEDINGS
, 1998
"... We argue that the invertibility of a block cipher can reduce the security of schemes that use it, and a better starting point for scheme design is the noninvertible analog of a block cipher, that is, a pseudorandom function (PRF). Since a block cipher may be viewed as a pseudorandom permutation, ..."
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We argue that the invertibility of a block cipher can reduce the security of schemes that use it, and a better starting point for scheme design is the noninvertible analog of a block cipher, that is, a pseudorandom function (PRF). Since a block cipher may be viewed as a pseudorandom permutation, we are led to investigate the reverse of the problem studied by Luby and Rackoff, and ask: "how can one transform a PRP into a PRF in as securitypreserving a way as possible?" The solution we propose is datadependent rekeying. As an illustrative special case, let E:f0; 1g nf0;1g n!f0;1g n be the block cipher. Then we can construct the PRF F from the PRP E by setting F (k; x) =E(E(k; x);x). We generalize this to allow for arbitrary block and key lengths, and to improve e ciency. We prove strong quantitative bounds on the value of datadependent rekeying in the Shannon model of an ideal cipher, and take some initial steps towards an analysis in the standard model.
The chain sum primitive and its applications to MACs and stream ciphers
 in (K. Nyberg, Ed) Advances in Cryptology  Proc. EUROCRYPT '98, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1403
, 1998
"... We present a new scheme called universal block chaining with sum (or chain & sum primitive (C&S) for short), and show its application to the problem of combined encryption and authentication of data. The primitive is a weak CBCtype encryption along with a summing step, and can be used as a ..."
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We present a new scheme called universal block chaining with sum (or chain & sum primitive (C&S) for short), and show its application to the problem of combined encryption and authentication of data. The primitive is a weak CBCtype encryption along with a summing step, and can be used as a front end to stream ciphers to encrypt pages or blocks of data (e.g., in an encrypted file system or in a video stream). Under standard assumptions, the resulting encryption scheme provably acts as a random permutation on the blocks, and has message integrity features of standard CBC encryption. The primitive also yields a very fast message authentication code (MAC), which is a multivariate polynomial evaluation hash. The multivariate feature and the summing aspect are novel parts of the design. Our tests show that the chain & sum primitive adds approximately 20 percent overhead to the fastest stream ciphers. 1