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280
Synchronization and linearity: an algebra for discrete event systems
, 2001
"... The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific ..."
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Cited by 323 (10 self)
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The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific community. Copyright Statement This electronic document is in PDF format. One needs Acrobat Reader (available freely for most platforms from the Adobe web site) to benefit from the full interactive machinery: using the package hyperref by Sebastian Rahtz, the table of contents and all LATEX crossreferences are automatically converted into clickable hyperlinks, bookmarks are generated automatically, etc.. So, do not hesitate to click on references to equation or section numbers, on items of thetableofcontents and of the index, etc.. One may freely use and print this document for one’s own purpose or even distribute it freely, but not commercially, provided it is distributed in its entirety and without modifications, including this preface and copyright statement. Any use of thecontents should be acknowledged according to the standard scientific practice. The
Dynamic Server Allocation to Parallel Queues with Randomly Varying Connectivity
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1993
"... ..."
Stability, queue length and delay of deterministic and stochastic queueing networks
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 1994
"... Motivated by recent development in high speed networks, in this paper we study two types of stability problems: (i) conditions for queueing networks that render bounded queue lengths and bounded delay for customers, and (ii) conditions for queueing networks in which the queue length distribution of ..."
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Cited by 223 (20 self)
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Motivated by recent development in high speed networks, in this paper we study two types of stability problems: (i) conditions for queueing networks that render bounded queue lengths and bounded delay for customers, and (ii) conditions for queueing networks in which the queue length distribution of a queue has an exponential tail with rate `. To answer these two types of stability problems, we introduce two new notions of traffic characterization: minimum envelope rate (MER) and minimum envelope rate with respect to `. Based on these two new notions of traffic characterization, we develop a set of rules for network operations such as superposition, inputoutput relation of a single queue, and routing. Specifically, we show that (i) the MER of a superposition process is less than or equal to the sum of the MER of each process, (ii) a queue is stable in the sense of bounded queue length if the MER of the input traffic is smaller than the capacity, (iii) the MER of a departure process from a stable queue is less than or equal to that of the input process (iv) the MER of a routed process from a departure process is less than or equal to the MER of the departure process multiplied by the MER of the routing process. Similar results hold for MER with respect to ` under a further assumption of independence. These rules provide a natural way to analyze feedforward networks with multiple classes of customers. For single class networks with nonfeedforward routing, we provide a new method to show that similar stability results hold for such networks under the FCFS policy. Moreover, when restricting to the family of twostate Markov modulated arrival processes, the notion of MER with respect to ` is shown to be
The FourierSeries Method For Inverting Transforms Of Probability Distributions
, 1991
"... This paper reviews the Fourierseries method for calculating cumulative distribution functions (cdf's) and probability mass functions (pmf's) by numerically inverting characteristic functions, Laplace transforms and generating functions. Some variants of the Fourierseries method are remar ..."
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Cited by 197 (52 self)
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This paper reviews the Fourierseries method for calculating cumulative distribution functions (cdf's) and probability mass functions (pmf's) by numerically inverting characteristic functions, Laplace transforms and generating functions. Some variants of the Fourierseries method are remarkably easy to use, requiring programs of less than fifty lines. The Fourierseries method can be interpreted as numerically integrating a standard inversion integral by means of the trapezoidal rule. The same formula is obtained by using the Fourier series of an associated periodic function constructed by aliasing; this explains the name of the method. This Fourier analysis applies to the inversion problem because the Fourier coefficients are just values of the transform. The mathematical centerpiece of the Fourierseries method is the Poisson summation formula, which identifies the discretization error associated with the trapezoidal rule and thus helps bound it. The greatest difficulty is approximately calculating the infinite series obtained from the inversion integral. Within this framework, lattice cdf's can be calculated from generating functions by finite sums without truncation. For other cdf's, an appropriate truncation of the infinite series can be determined from the transform based on estimates or bounds. For Laplace transforms, the numerical integration can be made to produce a nearly alternating series, so that the convergence can be accelerated by techniques such as Euler summation. Alternatively, the cdf can be perturbed slightly by convolution smoothing or windowing to produce a truncation error bound independent of the original cdf. Although error bounds can be determined, an effective approach is to use two different methods without elaborate error analysis. For this...
Load Balanced Birkhoffvon Neumann Switches, Part II: Multistage Buffering
, 2001
"... The main objective of this sequel is to solve the outofsequence problem that occurs in the load balanced Birkhoffvon Neumann switch with onestage buffering. We do this by adding a loadbalancing buffer in front of the first stage and a resequencingandoutput buffer after the second stage. Moreo ..."
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Cited by 132 (16 self)
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The main objective of this sequel is to solve the outofsequence problem that occurs in the load balanced Birkhoffvon Neumann switch with onestage buffering. We do this by adding a loadbalancing buffer in front of the first stage and a resequencingandoutput buffer after the second stage. Moreover, packets are distributed at the first stage according to their flows, instead of their arrival times in Part I. In this paper, we consider multicasting ows with two types of scheduling policies: the First Come First Served (FCFS) policy and the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) policy. The FCFS policy requires a jitter control mechanism in front of the second stage to ensure proper ordering of the traffic entering the second stage. For the EDF scheme, there is no need for jitter control. It uses the departure times of the corresponding FCFS outputbuffered switch as deadlines and schedules packets according to their deadlines. For both policies, we show that the endtoend delay through our multistage switch is bounded above by the sum of the delay from the corresponding FCFS outputbuffered switch and a constant that only depends on the size of the switch and the number of multicasting flows supported by the switch.
The Power of Two Random Choices: A Survey of Techniques and Results
 in Handbook of Randomized Computing
, 2000
"... ITo motivate this survey, we begin with a simple problem that demonstrates a powerful fundamental idea. Suppose that n balls are thrown into n bins, with each ball choosing a bin independently and uniformly at random. Then the maximum load, or the largest number of balls in any bin, is approximately ..."
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Cited by 122 (4 self)
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ITo motivate this survey, we begin with a simple problem that demonstrates a powerful fundamental idea. Suppose that n balls are thrown into n bins, with each ball choosing a bin independently and uniformly at random. Then the maximum load, or the largest number of balls in any bin, is approximately log n= log log n with high probability. Now suppose instead that the balls are placed sequentially, and each ball is placed in the least loaded of d 2 bins chosen independently and uniformly at random. Azar, Broder, Karlin, and Upfal showed that in this case, the maximum load is log log n= log d + (1) with high probability [ABKU99]. The important implication of this result is that even a small amount of choice can lead to drastically different results in load balancing. Indeed, having just two random choices (i.e.,...
Stochastic Network Calculus
, 2008
"... A basic calculus is presented for stochastic service guarantee analysis in communication networks. Central to the calculus are two definitions, maximum(virtual)backlogcentric (m.b.c) stochastic arrival curve and stochastic service curve, which respectively generalize arrival curve and service c ..."
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Cited by 108 (18 self)
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A basic calculus is presented for stochastic service guarantee analysis in communication networks. Central to the calculus are two definitions, maximum(virtual)backlogcentric (m.b.c) stochastic arrival curve and stochastic service curve, which respectively generalize arrival curve and service curve in the deterministic network calculus framework. With m.b.c stochastic arrival curve and stochastic service curve, various basic results are derived under the (min, +) algebra for the general case analysis, which are crucial to the development of stochastic network calculus. These results include (i) superposition of flows, (ii) concatenation of servers, (iii) output characterization, (iv) perflow service under aggregation, and (v) stochastic backlog and delay guarantees. In addition, to perform independent case analysis, stochastic strict server is defined, which uses an ideal service process and an impairment process to characterize a server. The concept of stochastic strict server not only allows us to improve the basic results (i) – (v) under the independent case, but also provides a convenient way to find the stochastic service curve of a serve. Moreover, an approach is introduced to find the m.b.c stochastic arrival curve of a flow and the stochastic service curve of a server.
Optimal Robot Scheduling for Web Search Engines
, 1997
"... A robot is deployed by a Web search engine in order to maintain the currency of its data base of Web pages. This paper studies robot scheduling policies that minimize the fractions r i of time pages spend outofdate, assuming independent Poisson pagechange processes, and a general distribution fo ..."
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Cited by 75 (1 self)
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A robot is deployed by a Web search engine in order to maintain the currency of its data base of Web pages. This paper studies robot scheduling policies that minimize the fractions r i of time pages spend outofdate, assuming independent Poisson pagechange processes, and a general distribution for the page access time X . We show that, if X is decreased in the increasingconvex ordering sense, then r i is decreased for all i under any scheduling policy, and that, in order to minimize expected total obsolescence time of any page, the accesses to that page should be as evenly spaced in time as possible. We then investigate the problem of scheduling to minimize the cost function P c i r i ; where the c i are given weights proportional to the pagechange rates ¯ i . We give a tight bound on the performance of such a policy and prove that the optimal frequency at which the robot should access page i is proportional to ln(h i ) \Gamma1 , where h i := Ee \Gamma¯ i X : Note that this...
Multiple Communication in MultiHop Radio Networks
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1993
"... Two tasks of communication in a multihop synchronous radio network are considered: pointtopoint communication and broadcast (sending a message to all nodes of a network). Efficient protocols for both problems are presented. Even though the protocols are probabilistic, it is shown how to acknowled ..."
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Cited by 73 (2 self)
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Two tasks of communication in a multihop synchronous radio network are considered: pointtopoint communication and broadcast (sending a message to all nodes of a network). Efficient protocols for both problems are presented. Even though the protocols are probabilistic, it is shown how to acknowledge messages deterministically. Let n, D, and Δ be the number of nodes, the diameter and the maximum degree of our network, respectively. Both protocols require a setup phase in which a BFS tree is constructed. This phase takes O ((n + Dlogn)logΔ) time. After the setup, k pointtopoint transmissions require O ((k +D)logΔ) time on the average. Therefore the network allows a new transmission every O (logΔ) time slots. Also, k broadcasts require an average of O ((k +D)logΔlogn) time. Hence the average throughput of the network is a broadcast every O(logΔlogn) time slots. Both protocols pipeline the messages along the BFS tree. They are always successful on the graph spanned by the BFS tree. Their probabilistic behavior refers only to the running time. Using the above protocols the ranking problem is solved in O (nlognlogΔ) time. The performance analysis of both protocols constitutes a new application of queueing theory.
Simple Performance Models of Differentiated Services Schemes for the Internet
, 1999
"... Schemes based on the tagging of packets have recently been proposed as a lowcost way to augment the single class best effort service model of the current Internet by including some kind of service discrimination. Such schemes have a number of attractive features, however, it is not clear exactly wh ..."
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Cited by 63 (0 self)
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Schemes based on the tagging of packets have recently been proposed as a lowcost way to augment the single class best effort service model of the current Internet by including some kind of service discrimination. Such schemes have a number of attractive features, however, it is not clear exactly what kind of service they would provide to applications. Yet quantifying such service is very important to understand the benets and drawbacks of the different tagging schemes and of the mechanisms in each scheme (for example how much RIO contributes in the Assured scheme), and to tackle key performance and economic issues (e.g. the difference in tariff between different service classes would presumably depend on the difference in performance between the classes). Our goal in this paper is to obtain a quantitative description of the service provided by tagging schemes. Specically, we describe and solve simple analytic models of two recently proposed schemes, namely the Assured Service scheme ...