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33
The Dynamical Hypothesis in Cognitive Science
 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
, 1997
"... The dynamical hypothesis is the claim that cognitive agents are dynamical systems. It stands opposed to the dominant computational hypothesis, the claim that cognitive agents are digital computers. This target article articulates the dynamical hypothesis and defends it as an open empirical alternati ..."
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Cited by 109 (1 self)
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The dynamical hypothesis is the claim that cognitive agents are dynamical systems. It stands opposed to the dominant computational hypothesis, the claim that cognitive agents are digital computers. This target article articulates the dynamical hypothesis and defends it as an open empirical alternative to the computational hypothesis. Carrying out these objectives requires extensive clarification of the conceptual terrain, with particular focus on the relation of dynamical systems to computers. Key words cognition, systems, dynamical systems, computers, computational systems, computability, modeling, time. Long Abstract The heart of the dominant computational approach in cognitive science is the hypothesis that cognitive agents are digital computers; the heart of the alternative dynamical approach is the hypothesis that cognitive agents are dynamical systems. This target article attempts to articulate the dynamical hypothesis and to defend it as an empirical alternative to the compu...
NonTuring computations via MalamentHogarth spacetimes
 Int. J. Theoretical Phys
, 2002
"... We investigate the Church–Kalmár–Kreisel–Turing Theses concerning theoretical (necessary) limitations of future computers and of deductive sciences, in view of recent results of classical general relativity theory. We argue that (i) there are several distinguished Church–Turingtype Theses (not only ..."
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Cited by 66 (8 self)
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We investigate the Church–Kalmár–Kreisel–Turing Theses concerning theoretical (necessary) limitations of future computers and of deductive sciences, in view of recent results of classical general relativity theory. We argue that (i) there are several distinguished Church–Turingtype Theses (not only one) and (ii) validity of some of these theses depend on the background physical theory we choose to use. In particular, if we choose classical general relativity theory as our background theory, then the above mentioned limitations (predicted by these Theses) become no more necessary, hence certain forms of the Church– Turing Thesis cease to be valid (in general relativity). (For other choices of the background theory the answer might be different.) We also look at various “obstacles ” to computing a nonrecursive function (by relying on relativistic phenomena) published in the literature and show that they can be avoided (by improving the “design ” of our future computer). We also ask ourselves, how all this reflects on the arithmetical hierarchy and the analytical hierarchy of uncomputable functions.
Abstract versus concrete computation on metric partial algebras
 ACM Transactions on Computational Logic
, 2004
"... Data types containing infinite data, such as the real numbers, functions, bit streams and waveforms, are modelled by topological manysorted algebras. In the theory of computation on topological algebras there is a considerable gap between socalled abstract and concrete models of computation. We pr ..."
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Cited by 30 (19 self)
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Data types containing infinite data, such as the real numbers, functions, bit streams and waveforms, are modelled by topological manysorted algebras. In the theory of computation on topological algebras there is a considerable gap between socalled abstract and concrete models of computation. We prove theorems that bridge the gap in the case of metric algebras with partial operations. With an abstract model of computation on an algebra, the computations are invariant under isomorphisms and do not depend on any representation of the algebra. Examples of such models are the ‘while ’ programming language and the BCSS model. With a concrete model of computation, the computations depend on the choice of a representation of the algebra and are not invariant under isomorphisms. Usually, the representations are made from the set N of natural numbers, and computability is reduced to classical computability on N. Examples of such models are computability via effective metric spaces, effective domain representations, and type two enumerability. The theory of abstract models is stable: there are many models of computation, and
A Survey of ContinuousTime Computation Theory
 Advances in Algorithms, Languages, and Complexity
, 1997
"... Motivated partly by the resurgence of neural computation research, and partly by advances in device technology, there has been a recent increase of interest in analog, continuoustime computation. However, while specialcase algorithms and devices are being developed, relatively little work exists o ..."
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Cited by 29 (6 self)
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Motivated partly by the resurgence of neural computation research, and partly by advances in device technology, there has been a recent increase of interest in analog, continuoustime computation. However, while specialcase algorithms and devices are being developed, relatively little work exists on the general theory of continuoustime models of computation. In this paper, we survey the existing models and results in this area, and point to some of the open research questions. 1 Introduction After a long period of oblivion, interest in analog computation is again on the rise. The immediate cause for this new wave of activity is surely the success of the neural networks "revolution", which has provided hardware designers with several new numerically based, computationally interesting models that are structurally sufficiently simple to be implemented directly in silicon. (For designs and actual implementations of neural models in VLSI, see e.g. [30, 45]). However, the more fundamental...
Local Realizability Toposes and a Modal Logic for Computability (Extended Abstracts)
 Presented at Tutorial Workshop on Realizability Semantics, FLoC'99
, 1999
"... ) Steven Awodey 1 Lars Birkedal 2y Dana S. Scott 2z 1 Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University 2 School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University April 15, 1999 Abstract This work is a step toward developing a logic for types and computation that includes both the usual ..."
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Cited by 24 (8 self)
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) Steven Awodey 1 Lars Birkedal 2y Dana S. Scott 2z 1 Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University 2 School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University April 15, 1999 Abstract This work is a step toward developing a logic for types and computation that includes both the usual spaces of mathematics and constructions and spaces from logic and domain theory. Using realizability, we investigate a configuration of three toposes, which we regard as describing a notion of relative computability. Attention is focussed on a certain local map of toposes, which we study first axiomatically, and then by deriving a modal calculus as its internal logic. The resulting framework is intended as a setting for the logical and categorical study of relative computability. 1 Introduction We report here on the current status of research on the Logic of Types and Computation at Carnegie Mellon University [SAB + ]. The general goal of this research program is to develop a logical fra...
On the complexity of real functions
, 2005
"... We establish a new connection between the two most common traditions in the theory of real computation, the BlumShubSmale model and the Computable Analysis approach. We then use the connection to develop a notion of computability and complexity of functions over the reals that can be viewed as an ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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We establish a new connection between the two most common traditions in the theory of real computation, the BlumShubSmale model and the Computable Analysis approach. We then use the connection to develop a notion of computability and complexity of functions over the reals that can be viewed as an extension of both models. We argue that this notion is very natural when one tries to determine just how “difficult ” a certain function is for a very rich class of functions. 1
The Computational Power of Continuous Time Neural Networks
 In Proc. SOFSEM'97, the 24th Seminar on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995
"... We investigate the computational power of continuoustime neural networks with Hopfieldtype units. We prove that polynomialsize networks with saturatedlinear response functions are at least as powerful as polynomially spacebounded Turing machines. 1 Introduction In a paper published in 1984 [11 ..."
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Cited by 14 (8 self)
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We investigate the computational power of continuoustime neural networks with Hopfieldtype units. We prove that polynomialsize networks with saturatedlinear response functions are at least as powerful as polynomially spacebounded Turing machines. 1 Introduction In a paper published in 1984 [11], John Hopfield introduced a continuoustime version of the neural network model whose discretetime variant he had discussed in his seminal 1982 paper [10]. The 1984 paper also contains an electronic implementation scheme for the continuoustime networks, and an argument showing that for sufficiently largegain nonlinearities, these behave similarly to the discretetime ones, at least when used as associative memories. The power of Hopfield's discretetime networks as generalpurpose computational devices was analyzed in [17, 18]. In this paper we conduct a similar analysis for networks consisting of Hopfield's continuoustime units; however we are at this stage able to analyze only the gen...
Computability of Convex Sets
 Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science
, 1995
"... We investigate computability of convex sets restricted to rational inputs. Several quite different algorithmic characterizations are presented and proved to be equivalent, like the existence of effective approximations by polygons or effective line intersection tests. Also obtained are characterizat ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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We investigate computability of convex sets restricted to rational inputs. Several quite different algorithmic characterizations are presented and proved to be equivalent, like the existence of effective approximations by polygons or effective line intersection tests. Also obtained are characterizations of recursively enumerable convex sets. 1 Introduction Convex sets play a prominent role in mathematical programming, computational geometry, convex analysis, and many other areas. There is a large number of papers dealing with polynomial time computable convex sets, but the basic question "Which convex sets are computable?" was scarcely studied. In this paper we characterize computable convex sets and show that several quite different approaches lead to the same notion. We consider computations on rational inputs, as e.g. in [4]. This has the advantage that the standard notions of computability and complexity on the natural numbers can be applied. We call a convex set A computable if t...
Effective Metric Spaces and Representations of the Reals
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE, 2002 (CCA'99 SPECIAL ISSUE
, 2000
"... Based on standard notions of classical recursion theory, a natural model of approximate computability for partial functions between effective metric spaces is presented. It generalizes the KoFriedman approach to computability of real functions by means of oracle Turing machines and avoids the ex ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Based on standard notions of classical recursion theory, a natural model of approximate computability for partial functions between effective metric spaces is presented. It generalizes the KoFriedman approach to computability of real functions by means of oracle Turing machines and avoids the explicit use of representations. The topological arithmetical hierarchy is introduced and shown to be strict if the underlying space contains an effectively discrete sequence. The domains of computable functions are just the \Pi 2 sets of that hierarchy if the space admits a finitary stratification. Finally, this framework is used to investigate and characterize the standard representations of the real numbers. They are just those functions from the name space onto the reals which have both computable extensions and inversions that are computable as relations.