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58
Bayesian Network Classifiers
, 1997
"... Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with stateoftheart classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the question of whether a classifier with less restr ..."
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Cited by 587 (22 self)
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Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with stateoftheart classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the question of whether a classifier with less restrictive assumptions can perform even better. In this paper we evaluate approaches for inducing classifiers from data, based on the theory of learning Bayesian networks. These networks are factored representations of probability distributions that generalize the naive Bayesian classifier and explicitly represent statements about independence. Among these approaches we single out a method we call Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), which outperforms naive Bayes, yet at the same time maintains the computational simplicity (no search involved) and robustness that characterize naive Bayes. We experimentally tested these approaches, using problems from the University of California at Irvine repository, and compared them to C4.5, naive Bayes, and wrapper methods for feature selection.
Hierarchically Classifying Documents Using Very Few Words
, 1997
"... The proliferation of topic hierarchies for text documents has resulted in a need for tools that automatically classify new documents within such hierarchies. Existing classification schemes which ignore the hierarchical structure and treat the topics as separate classes are often inadequate in text ..."
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Cited by 421 (9 self)
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The proliferation of topic hierarchies for text documents has resulted in a need for tools that automatically classify new documents within such hierarchies. Existing classification schemes which ignore the hierarchical structure and treat the topics as separate classes are often inadequate in text classification where the there is a large number of classes and a huge number of relevant features needed to distinguish between them. We propose an approach that utilizes the hierarchical topic structure to decompose the classification task into a set of simpler problems, one at each node in the classification tree. As we show, each of these smaller problems can be solved accurately by focusing only on a very small set of features, those relevant to the task at hand. This set of relevant features varies widely throughout the hierarchy, so that, while the overall relevant feature set may be large, each classifier only examines a small subset. The use of reduced feature sets allows us to util...
Scaling Up the Accuracy of NaiveBayes Classifiers: a DecisionTree Hybrid
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY AND DATA MINING
, 1996
"... NaiveBayes induction algorithms were previously shown to be surprisingly accurate on many classification tasks even when the conditional independence assumption on which they are based is violated. However, most studies were done on small databases. We show that in some larger databases, the accura ..."
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Cited by 175 (4 self)
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NaiveBayes induction algorithms were previously shown to be surprisingly accurate on many classification tasks even when the conditional independence assumption on which they are based is violated. However, most studies were done on small databases. We show that in some larger databases, the accuracy of NaiveBayes does not scale up as well as decision trees. We then propose a new algorithm, NBTree, which induces a hybrid of decisiontree classifiers and NaiveBayes classifiers: the decisiontree nodes contain univariate splits as regular decisiontrees, but the leaves contain NaiveBayesian classifiers. The approach retains the interpretability of NaiveBayes and decision trees, while resulting in classifiers that frequently outperform both constituents, especially in the larger databases tested.
Correlationbased feature selection for machine learning
, 1998
"... A central problem in machine learning is identifying a representative set of features from which to construct a classification model for a particular task. This thesis addresses the problem of feature selection for machine learning through a correlation based approach. The central hypothesis is that ..."
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Cited by 139 (3 self)
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A central problem in machine learning is identifying a representative set of features from which to construct a classification model for a particular task. This thesis addresses the problem of feature selection for machine learning through a correlation based approach. The central hypothesis is that good feature sets contain features that are highly correlated with the class, yet uncorrelated with each other. A feature evaluation formula, based on ideas from test theory, provides an operational definition of this hypothesis. CFS (Correlation based Feature Selection) is an algorithm that couples this evaluation formula with an appropriate correlation measure and a heuristic search strategy. CFS was evaluated by experiments on artificial and natural datasets. Three machine learning algorithms were used: C4.5 (a decision tree learner), IB1 (an instance based learner), and naive Bayes. Experiments on artificial datasets showed that CFS quickly identifies and screens irrelevant, redundant, and noisy features, and identifies relevant features as long as their relevance does not strongly depend on other features. On natural domains, CFS typically eliminated well over half the features. In most cases, classification accuracy using the reduced feature set equaled or bettered accuracy using the complete feature set.
Exploiting Human Actions and Object Context for Recognition Tasks
, 1999
"... Our goal is to exploit human motion and object context to perform action recognition and object classification. Towards this end, we introduce a framework for recognizing actions and objects by measuring image, object and actionbased information from video. Hidden Markov models are combined with ..."
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Cited by 118 (6 self)
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Our goal is to exploit human motion and object context to perform action recognition and object classification. Towards this end, we introduce a framework for recognizing actions and objects by measuring image, object and actionbased information from video. Hidden Markov models are combined with object context to classify hand actions, which are aggregated by a Bayesian classifier to summarize activities. We also use Bayesian methods to differentiate the class of unknown objects by evaluating detected actions along with lowlevel, extracted object features. Our approach is appropriate for locating and classifying objects under a variety of conditions including full occlusion. We show experiments where both familiar and previously unseen objects are recognized using action and context information. 1. Introduction This paper proposes a novel approach to human activity recognition that uses context information of particular objects in the scene. We define classes that contain objects...
MachineLearning Research  Four Current Directions
"... Machine Learning research has been making great progress in many directions. This article summarizes four of these directions and discusses some current open problems. The four directions are (a) improving classification accuracy by learning ensembles of classifiers, (b) methods for scaling up super ..."
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Cited by 114 (1 self)
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Machine Learning research has been making great progress in many directions. This article summarizes four of these directions and discusses some current open problems. The four directions are (a) improving classification accuracy by learning ensembles of classifiers, (b) methods for scaling up supervised learning algorithms, (c) reinforcement learning, and (d) learning complex stochastic models.
Learning Limited Dependence Bayesian Classifiers
 In KDD96: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 1996
"... We present a framework for characterizing Bayesian classification methods. This framework can be thought of as a spectrum of allowable dependence in a given probabilistic model with the Naive Bayes algorithm at the most restrictive end and the learning of full Bayesian networks at the most general e ..."
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Cited by 108 (5 self)
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We present a framework for characterizing Bayesian classification methods. This framework can be thought of as a spectrum of allowable dependence in a given probabilistic model with the Naive Bayes algorithm at the most restrictive end and the learning of full Bayesian networks at the most general extreme. While much work has been carried out along the two ends of this spectrum, there has been surprising little done along the middle. We analyze the assumptions made as one moves along this spectrum and show the tradeoffs between model accuracy and learning speed which become critical to consider in a variety of data mining domains. We then present a general induction algorithm that allows for traversal of this spectrum depending on the available computational power for carrying out induction and show its application in a number of domains with different properties. Introduction Recently, work in Bayesian methods for classification has grown enormously (Cooper & Herskovits 1992) (Buntin...
Discretizing Continuous Attributes While Learning Bayesian Networks
 In Proc. ICML
, 1996
"... We introduce a method for learning Bayesian networks that handles the discretization of continuous variables as an integral part of the learning process. The main ingredient in this method is a new metric based on the Minimal Description Length principle for choosing the threshold values for the dis ..."
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Cited by 64 (4 self)
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We introduce a method for learning Bayesian networks that handles the discretization of continuous variables as an integral part of the learning process. The main ingredient in this method is a new metric based on the Minimal Description Length principle for choosing the threshold values for the discretization while learning the Bayesian network structure. This score balances the complexity of the learned discretization and the learned network structure against how well they model the training data. This ensures that the discretization of each variable introduces just enough intervals to capture its interaction with adjacent variables in the network. We formally derive the new metric, study its main properties, and propose an iterative algorithm for learning a discretization policy. Finally, we illustrate its behavior in applications to supervised learning. 1 INTRODUCTION Bayesian networks provide efficient and effective representation of the joint probability distribution over a set ...
Improving Simple Bayes
, 1997
"... The simple Bayesian classifier (SBC), sometimes called NaiveBayes, is built based on a conditional independence model of each attribute given the class. The model was previously shown to be surprisingly robust to obvious violations of this independence assumption, yielding accurate classificat ..."
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Cited by 59 (1 self)
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The simple Bayesian classifier (SBC), sometimes called NaiveBayes, is built based on a conditional independence model of each attribute given the class. The model was previously shown to be surprisingly robust to obvious violations of this independence assumption, yielding accurate classification models even when there are clear conditional dependencies. We examine different approaches for handling unknowns and zero counts when estimating probabilities. Large scale experiments on 37 datasets were conducted to determine the effects of these approaches and several interesting insights are given, including a new variant of the Laplace estimator that outperforms other methods for dealing with zero counts. Using the biasvariance decomposition [15, 10], we show that while the SBC has performed well on common benchmark datasets, its accuracy will not scale up as the dataset sizes grow. Even with these limitations in mind, the SBC can serve as an excellenttool for initial exp...
Learning Augmented Bayesian Classifiers: A Comparison of Distributionbased and Classificationbased Approaches
, 1999
"... The naïve Bayes classifier is built on the assumption of conditional independence between the attributes given the class. The algorithm has been shown to be surprisingly robust to obvious violations of this condition, but it is natural to ask if it is possible to further improve the accuracy by rela ..."
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Cited by 57 (0 self)
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The naïve Bayes classifier is built on the assumption of conditional independence between the attributes given the class. The algorithm has been shown to be surprisingly robust to obvious violations of this condition, but it is natural to ask if it is possible to further improve the accuracy by relaxing this assumption. We examine an approach where naïve Bayes is augmented by the addition of correlation arcs between attributes. We explore two methods for finding the set of augmenting arcs, a greedy hillclimbing search, and a novel, more computationally efficient algorithm that we call SuperParent. We compare these methods to TAN; a stateof theart distributionbased approach to finding the augmenting arcs. 1 INTRODUCTION The Bayesian classifier (Duda & Hart, 1973) is a simple classification method, which classifies an instance j by determining the probability of it belonging to class C . These probabilities are calculated as: ) & & ( 1 1 j N N i V A V A C P = = v , (1) where an exam...