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Fast Folding and Comparison of RNA Secondary Structures (The Vienna RNA Package)
"... Computer codes for computation and comparison of RNA secondary structures, the Vienna RNA package, are presented, that are based on dynamic programming algorithms and aim at predictions of structures with minimum free energies as well as at computations of the equilibrium partition functions and bas ..."
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Cited by 473 (90 self)
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Computer codes for computation and comparison of RNA secondary structures, the Vienna RNA package, are presented, that are based on dynamic programming algorithms and aim at predictions of structures with minimum free energies as well as at computations of the equilibrium partition functions and base pairing probabilities. An efficient heuristic for the inverse folding problem of RNA is introduced. In addition we present compact and efficient programs for the comparison of RNA secondary structures based on tree editing and alignment. All computer codes are written in ANSI C. They include implementations of modified algorithms on parallel computers with distributed memory. Performance analysis carried out on an Intel Hypercube shows that parallel computing becomes gradually more and more efficient the longer the sequences are.
Plasticity, evolvability, and modularity in RNA
 J EXP ZOOL
, 2000
"... RNA folding from sequences into secondary structures is a simple yet powerful, biophysically grounded model of a genotype–phenotype map in which concepts like plasticity, evolvability, epistasis, and modularity can not only be precisely defined and statistically measured but also reveal simultaneou ..."
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Cited by 62 (2 self)
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RNA folding from sequences into secondary structures is a simple yet powerful, biophysically grounded model of a genotype–phenotype map in which concepts like plasticity, evolvability, epistasis, and modularity can not only be precisely defined and statistically measured but also reveal simultaneous and profoundly nonindependent effects of natural selection. Molecular plasticity is viewed here as the capacity of an RNA sequence to assume a variety of energetically favorable shapes by equilibrating among them at constant temperature. Through simulations based on experimental designs, we study the dynamics of a population of RNA molecules that evolve toward a predefined target shape in a constant environment. Each shape in the plastic repertoire of a sequence contributes to the overall fitness of the sequence in proportion to the time the sequence spends in that shape. Plasticity is costly, since the more shapes a sequence can assume, the less time it spends in any one of them. Unsurprisingly, selection leads to a reduction of plasticity (environmental canalization). The most striking observation, however, is the simultaneous slowdown and eventual halting of the evolutionary process. The reduction of plasticity entails genetic canalization, that is, a dramatic loss of variability (and hence a loss of evolvability) to the point of lockin. The causal bridge between environmental canalization and genetic canalization
Landscapes And Molecular Evolution
, 1996
"... that allows to choose the direction for the next step at random from all directions along which fitness does not decrease. Stationary states of populations correspond to local optima of the fitness landscape. Evolution is seen as a series of transitions between optima with increasing fitness values. ..."
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Cited by 41 (5 self)
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that allows to choose the direction for the next step at random from all directions along which fitness does not decrease. Stationary states of populations correspond to local optima of the fitness landscape. Evolution is seen as a series of transitions between optima with increasing fitness values. Wright's metaphor saw a recent revival when sufficiently simple models of fitness landscapes became available [1, 41]. These models are based on spin glass theory [63, 66] or closely related to it like Kauffman's Nk model [42]. Evolution of RNA molecules has been studied by more realistic models that deal explicitly with molecular structures obtained from folding RNA sequences [23, 24]. Fitness values serving as input parameters for evolutionary dynamics were derived through evaluation of the structures. The complexity of RNA fitness landscapes originates from conflicting consequences of structural changes that are reminiscent of "frustration" in the theory of spin glasses [2]. Fitness in t
Statistics of RNA Melting Kinetics
, 1993
"... We present and study the behavior of a simple kinetic model for the melting of RNA secondary structures, given that those structures are known. The model is then used as a map that assigns structure dependent overall rate constants of melting (or refolding) to a sequence. This induces a "landscape" ..."
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Cited by 32 (13 self)
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We present and study the behavior of a simple kinetic model for the melting of RNA secondary structures, given that those structures are known. The model is then used as a map that assigns structure dependent overall rate constants of melting (or refolding) to a sequence. This induces a "landscape" of reaction rates, or activation energies, over the space of sequences with fixed length. We study the distribution and the correlation structure of these activation energies. 1. Introduction Single stranded RNA sequences fold into complex threedimensional structures. A tractable, yet reasonable, model for the map from sequences to structures considers a more coarse grained level of resolution known as the secondary structure. The secondary structure is a list of base pairs such that no pairings occur between bases located in different loop regions. Algorithms based on empirical energy data have been developed to compute the minimum free energy secondary structure of an RNA sequence (Zuker...
Landscapes  Complex Optimization Problems and Biopolymer Structures
 Computers Chem
, 1993
"... The evolution of RNA molecules in replication assays, viroids and RNA viruses can be viewed as an adaptation process on a 'fitness' landscape. The dynamics of evolution is hence tightly linked to the structure of the underlying landscape. Global features of landscapes can be described by statistical ..."
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Cited by 31 (16 self)
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The evolution of RNA molecules in replication assays, viroids and RNA viruses can be viewed as an adaptation process on a 'fitness' landscape. The dynamics of evolution is hence tightly linked to the structure of the underlying landscape. Global features of landscapes can be described by statistical measures like number of optima, lengths of walks, and correlation functions. The evolution of a quasispecies on such landscapes exhibits three dynamical regimes depending on the replication fidelity: Above the "localization threshold" the population is centered around a (local) optimum. Between localization and "dispersion threshold" the population is still centered around a consensus sequence, which, however, changes in time. For very large mutation rates the population spreads in sequence space like a gas. The critical mutation rates separating the three domains depend strongly on characteristics properties of the fitness landscapes. Statistical characteristics of RNA landscapes are acces...
Genotypes with phenotypes: Adventures in an RNA toy world
 Biophys. Chem
, 1997
"... Evolution has created the complexity of the animate world and deciphering the language of evolution is the key towards understanding nature. The dynamics of evolution is simplified by considering it as a superposition of three less sophisticated processes: population dynamics, population support dyn ..."
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Cited by 16 (6 self)
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Evolution has created the complexity of the animate world and deciphering the language of evolution is the key towards understanding nature. The dynamics of evolution is simplified by considering it as a superposition of three less sophisticated processes: population dynamics, population support dynamics, and genotypephenotype mapping. Evolution of molecules in laboratory assays provides a sufficiently simple system for the quantitative analysis of the three phenomena. Coarsegrained notions of structures like RNA secondary structures are used as model phenotypes. They provide an excellent tool for a comprehensive analysis of the entire complex of molecular evolution. The mapping from RNA genotypes into secondary structures is highly redundant. In order to find at least one sequence for every common structures one need only search a (relatively) small part of sequence space. The existence of selectively neutral phenotypes plays an important role for the the success and the efficiency ...
DNA Computation: Theory, Practice, and Prospects
 Evolutionary Computation
, 1999
"... Adleman launched the field of DNA computing with a demonstration in 1994 that strands of DNA could be used to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem for a simple graph. He also identified three broad categories of open questions for the field. First, is DNA capable of universal computation? Second, what ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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Adleman launched the field of DNA computing with a demonstration in 1994 that strands of DNA could be used to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem for a simple graph. He also identified three broad categories of open questions for the field. First, is DNA capable of universal computation? Second, what kinds of algorithms can DNA implement? Third, can the error rates in the manipulations of the DNA be controlled enough to allow for useful computation? In the two years that have followed, theoretical work has shown that DNA is in fact capable of universal computation. Furthermore, algorithms for solving interesting questions, like breaking the Data Encryption Standard, have been described using currently available technology and methods. Finally, a few algorithms have been proposed to handle some of the apparently crippling error rates in a few of the common processes used to manipulate DNA. It is thus unlikely that DNA computation is doomed to be only a passing curiosity. However,...
The Application of Stochastic ContextFree Grammars to Folding, Aligning and Modeling Homologous RNA Sequences
, 1993
"... Stochastic contextfree grammars (SCFGs) are applied to the problems of folding, aligning and modeling families of homologous RNA sequences. SCFGs capture the sequences' common primary and secondary structure and generalize the hidden Markov models (HMMs) used in related work on protein and DNA. ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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Stochastic contextfree grammars (SCFGs) are applied to the problems of folding, aligning and modeling families of homologous RNA sequences. SCFGs capture the sequences' common primary and secondary structure and generalize the hidden Markov models (HMMs) used in related work on protein and DNA. The novel aspect of this work is that SCFG parameters are learned automatically from unaligned, unfolded training sequences. A generalization of the HMM forwardbackward algorithm is introduced to do this. The new algorithm, TreeGrammar EM, based on tree grammars and faster than the previously proposed SCFG insideoutside training algorithm, produced a model that we tested on the transfer RNA (tRNA) family. Results show that after having been trained on as few as 20 tRNA sequences from only two tRNA subfamilies (mitochondrial and cytoplasmic), the model can discern general tRNA from similarlength RNA sequences of other kinds, can find secondary structure of new tRNA sequences, and c...
Autocatalytic Replication in a CSTR and Constant Organization
, 1995
"... The dynamics of a network of autocatalytically replicating species in a continuously stirred tank reactor can be described by a replicator equation in the limit of small flux rates. ..."
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Cited by 7 (7 self)
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The dynamics of a network of autocatalytically replicating species in a continuously stirred tank reactor can be described by a replicator equation in the limit of small flux rates.