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206
Shock Graphs and Shape Matching
, 1998
"... We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a ..."
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Cited by 207 (34 self)
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We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a directed, acyclic shock graph, and complexity is managed by attending to the most significant (central) shape components first. The space of all such graphs is highly structured and can be characterized by the rules of a shock graph grammar. The grammar permits a reduction of a shock graph to a unique rooted shock tree. We introduce a novel tree matching algorithm which finds the best set of corresponding nodes between two shock trees in polynomial time. Using a diverse database of shapes, we demonstrate our system's performance under articulation, occlusion, and changes in viewpoint. Keywords: shape representation; shape matching; shock graph; shock graph grammar; subgraph isomorphism. 1 I...
A completeness theorem for Kleene algebras and the algebra of regular events
 Information and Computation
, 1994
"... We givea nitary axiomatization of the algebra of regular events involving only equations and equational implications. Unlike Salomaa's axiomatizations, the axiomatization given here is sound for all interpretations over Kleene algebras. 1 ..."
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Cited by 186 (22 self)
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We givea nitary axiomatization of the algebra of regular events involving only equations and equational implications. Unlike Salomaa's axiomatizations, the axiomatization given here is sound for all interpretations over Kleene algebras. 1
Decidable reasoning in terminological knowledge representation systems
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1993
"... Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems (TKRSs) are tools for designing and using knowledge bases that make use of terminological languages (or concept languages). The TKRS we consider in this paper is of practical interest since it goes beyond the capabilities of presently available TKRSs. ..."
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Cited by 185 (12 self)
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Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems (TKRSs) are tools for designing and using knowledge bases that make use of terminological languages (or concept languages). The TKRS we consider in this paper is of practical interest since it goes beyond the capabilities of presently available TKRSs. First, our TKRS is equipped with a highly expressive concept, language, called ALCNR, including general complements of concepts, number restrictions and role conjunction. Second, it allows one to express inclusion statements between general concepts, in particular to express terminological cycles. We provide a sound, complete and terminating calculus for reasoning in ALCNRknowledge bases based on the general technique of constraint systems.
SPIRIT: Sequential Pattern Mining with Regular Expression Constraints”. Bell Labs Tech. Memorandum BL011237099022303TM
, 1999
"... Discovering sequential patterns is an important problem in data mining with a host of application domains including medicine, telecommunications, and the World Wide Web. Conventional mining systems provide users with only a very restricted mechanism (based on minimum support) for specifying patterns ..."
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Cited by 158 (2 self)
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Discovering sequential patterns is an important problem in data mining with a host of application domains including medicine, telecommunications, and the World Wide Web. Conventional mining systems provide users with only a very restricted mechanism (based on minimum support) for specifying patterns of interest. In this paper, we propose the use of Regular Expressions (REs) as a flexible constraint specification tool that enables usercontrolled focus to be incorporated into the pattern mining process. We develop a family of novel algorithms (termed SPIRIT – Sequential Pattern mIning with Regular expressIon consTraints) for mining frequent sequential patterns that also satisfy userspecified RE constraints. The main distinguishing factor among the proposed schemes is the degree to which the RE constraints are enforced to prune the search space of patterns during computation. Our solutions provide valuable insights into the tradeoffs that arise when constraints that do not subscribe to nice properties (like antimonotonicity) are integrated into the mining process. A quantitative exploration of these tradeoffs is conducted through an extensive experimental study on synthetic and reallife data sets. 1
ConjunctiveQuery Containment and Constraint Satisfaction
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1998
"... Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in c ..."
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Cited by 131 (13 self)
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Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in common? Our main conceptual contribution in this paper is to point out that, despite their very different formulation, conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction are essentially the same problem. The reason is that they can be recast as the following fundamental algebraic problem: given two finite relational structures A and B, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? As formulated above, the homomorphism problem is uniform in the sense that both relational structures A and B are part of the input. By fixing the structure B, one obtains the following nonuniform problem: given a finite relational structure A, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? In general, nonuniform tractability results do not uniformize. Thus, it is natural to ask: which tractable cases of nonuniform tractability results for constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment do uniformize? Our main technical contribution in this paper is to show that several cases of tractable nonuniform constraint satisfaction problems do indeed uniformize. We exhibit three nonuniform tractability results that uniformize and, thus, give rise to polynomialtime solvable cases of constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment.
The Protein Threading Problem With Sequence Amino Acid Interaction Preferences Is NPComplete
 Protein Eng
, 1995
"... In recent protein structure prediction research there has been a great deal of interest in using amino acid interaction preferences (e.g., contact potentials, or potentials of mean force) to align ("thread") a protein sequence to a known structural motif. An important open question is whether a poly ..."
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Cited by 91 (4 self)
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In recent protein structure prediction research there has been a great deal of interest in using amino acid interaction preferences (e.g., contact potentials, or potentials of mean force) to align ("thread") a protein sequence to a known structural motif. An important open question is whether a polynomial time algorithm for finding the globally optimal threading is possible. We identify the two critical conditions governing this question: (1) variablelength gaps are admitted into the alignment, and (2) interactions between amino acids from the sequence are admitted into the score function. We prove that if both these conditions are allowed, then the Protein Threading Decision Problem (does there exist a threading with a score less than K?) is NPcomplete (in the strong sense, i.e., is not merely a number problem), and the related problem of finding the globally optimal protein threading is NPhard. Therefore, no polynomial time algorithm is possible (unless P=NP). This result augments...
Logics of communication and change
 Information and Computation
, 2005
"... Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We propose new systems that extend the underlying static epistemic languages i ..."
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Cited by 85 (40 self)
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Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We propose new systems that extend the underlying static epistemic languages in such a way that completeness proofs for the full dynamic systems can be obtained by perspicuous reduction axioms. Also, we include factual alteration, rather than just information change, which allows us to cover a much wider range of phenomena in the area of communication and change. 1
Symbolic Verification of Communication Protocols with Infinite State Spaces using QDDs (Extended Abstract)
 In CAV'96. LNCS 1102
"... ) Bernard Boigelot Universit'e de Li`ege Institut Montefiore, B28 4000 Li`ege SartTilman, Belgium Email: boigelot@montefiore.ulg.ac.be Patrice Godefroid Lucent Technologies  Bell Laboratories 1000 E. Warrenville Road Naperville, IL 60566, U.S.A. Email: god@belllabs.com Abstract We study the v ..."
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Cited by 82 (7 self)
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) Bernard Boigelot Universit'e de Li`ege Institut Montefiore, B28 4000 Li`ege SartTilman, Belgium Email: boigelot@montefiore.ulg.ac.be Patrice Godefroid Lucent Technologies  Bell Laboratories 1000 E. Warrenville Road Naperville, IL 60566, U.S.A. Email: god@belllabs.com Abstract We study the verification of properties of communication protocols modeled by a finite set of finitestate machines that communicate by exchanging messages via unbounded FIFO queues. It is wellknown that most interesting verification problems, such as deadlock detection, are undecidable for this class of systems. However, in practice, these verification problems may very well turn out to be decidable for a subclass containing most "real" protocols. Motivated by this optimistic (and, we claim, realistic) observation, we present an algorithm that may construct a finite and exact representation of the state space of a communication protocol, even if this state space is infinite. Our algorithm performs a loo...
The calculi of emergence: Computation, dynamics, and induction
 Physica D
, 1994
"... Defining structure and detecting the emergence of complexity in nature are inherently subjective, though essential, scientific activities. Despite the difficulties, these problems can be analyzed in terms of how modelbuilding observers infer from measurements the computational capabilities embedded ..."
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Cited by 79 (14 self)
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Defining structure and detecting the emergence of complexity in nature are inherently subjective, though essential, scientific activities. Despite the difficulties, these problems can be analyzed in terms of how modelbuilding observers infer from measurements the computational capabilities embedded in nonlinear processes. An observer’s notion of what is ordered, what is random, and what is complex in its environment depends directly on its computational resources: the amount of raw measurement data, of memory, and of time available for estimation and inference. The discovery of structure in an environment depends more critically and subtlely, though, on how those resources are organized. The descriptive power of the observer’s chosen (or implicit) computational model class, for example, can be an overwhelming determinant in finding regularity in data. This paper presents an overview of an inductive framework — hierarchicalmachine reconstruction — in which the emergence of complexity is associated with the innovation of new computational model classes. Complexity metrics for detecting structure and quantifying emergence, along with an analysis of the constraints on the dynamics of innovation, are outlined. Illustrative examples are drawn from the onset of unpredictability in nonlinear systems, finitary nondeterministic processes, and