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11
Graphs, Causality, And Structural Equation Models
, 1998
"... Structural equation modeling (SEM) has dominated causal analysis in the social and behavioral sciences since the 1960s. Currently, many SEM practitioners are having difficulty articulating the causal content of SEM and are seeking foundational answers. ..."
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Cited by 44 (14 self)
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) has dominated causal analysis in the social and behavioral sciences since the 1960s. Currently, many SEM practitioners are having difficulty articulating the causal content of SEM and are seeking foundational answers.
Using Path Diagrams as a Structural Equation Modelling Tool
, 1997
"... this paper, we will show how path diagrams can be used to solve a number of important problems in structural equation modelling. There are a number of problems associated with structural equation modeling. These problems include: ..."
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Cited by 29 (7 self)
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this paper, we will show how path diagrams can be used to solve a number of important problems in structural equation modelling. There are a number of problems associated with structural equation modeling. These problems include:
The Dimensionality of Mixed Ancestral Graphs
, 1997
"... this paper, MAGs have the following useful features: ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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this paper, MAGs have the following useful features:
Causal reasoning with ancestral graphs
, 2008
"... Causal reasoning is primarily concerned with what would happen to a system under external interventions. In particular, we are often interested in predicting the probability distribution of some random variables that would result if some other variables were forced to take certain values. One promin ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Causal reasoning is primarily concerned with what would happen to a system under external interventions. In particular, we are often interested in predicting the probability distribution of some random variables that would result if some other variables were forced to take certain values. One prominent approach to tackling this problem is based on causal Bayesian networks, using directed acyclic graphs as causal diagrams to relate postintervention probabilities to preintervention probabilities that are estimable from observational data. However, such causal diagrams are seldom fully testable given observational data. In consequence, many causal discovery algorithms based on datamining can only output an equivalence class of causal diagrams (rather than a single one). This paper is concerned with causal reasoning given an equivalence class of causal diagrams, represented by a (partial) ancestral graph. We present two main results. The first result extends Pearl (1995)’s celebrated docalculus to the context of ancestral graphs. In the second result, we focus on a key component of Pearl’s calculus—the property of invariance under interventions, and give stronger graphical conditions for this property than those implied by the first result. The second result also improves the earlier, similar results due to Spirtes et al. (1993).
P.: A transformational characterization of markov equivalence for directed acyclic graphs with latent variables
 In: Proc. of the 21st Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI
, 2005
"... The conditional independence relations present in a data set usually admit multiple causal explanations — typically represented by directed graphs — which are Markov equivalent in that they entail the same conditional independence relations among the observed variables. Markov equivalence between di ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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The conditional independence relations present in a data set usually admit multiple causal explanations — typically represented by directed graphs — which are Markov equivalent in that they entail the same conditional independence relations among the observed variables. Markov equivalence between directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) has been characterized in various ways, each of which has been found useful for certain purposes. In particular, Chickering’s transformational characterization is useful in deriving properties shared by Markov equivalent DAGs, and, with certain generalization, is needed to justify a search procedure over Markov equivalence classes, known as the GES algorithm. Markov equivalence between DAGs with latent variables has also been characterized, in the spirit of Verma and Pearl (1990), via maximal ancestral graphs (MAGs). The latter can represent the observable conditional independence relations as well as some causal features of DAG models with latent variables. However, no characterization of Markov equivalent MAGs is yet available that is analogous to the transformational characterization for Markov equivalent DAGs. The main contribution of the current paper is to establish such a characterization for directed MAGs, which we expect will have similar uses as Chickering’s characterization does for DAGs. 1
Tractable Structure Search in the Presence of Latent Variables
"... The problem of learning the structure of a DAGmodel in the presence of latent variables presents many formidable challenges. In particular there are an infinite number of latent variable models to consider, and these models possess features which make them hard to work with. We describe a clas ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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The problem of learning the structure of a DAGmodel in the presence of latent variables presents many formidable challenges. In particular there are an infinite number of latent variable models to consider, and these models possess features which make them hard to work with. We describe a class of graphical models which can represent the conditional independence structure induced by a latent variable model over the observed margin. We give a parametrization of the set of Gaussian distributions with conditional independence structure given by a MAG model. The models are illustrated via a simple example. Different estimation techniques are discussed in the context of Zellner's Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Keywords: Multivariate Graphical Models; Causal Modelling; Latent Variables; Ancestral Graphs; MAG Models. 1 INTRODUCTION There has been significant progress in the development of algorithms for learning the directed acyclic graph (DAG) part of a Bayes...
The Similarity of Causal Inference in Experimental and NonExperimental Studies *
"... For nearly as long as the word “correlation ” has been part of statistical parlance, students have been warned that correlation does not prove causation, and that only experimental studies, e.g., randomized clinical trials, can establish the existence of a causal relationship. Over the last few deca ..."
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For nearly as long as the word “correlation ” has been part of statistical parlance, students have been warned that correlation does not prove causation, and that only experimental studies, e.g., randomized clinical trials, can establish the existence of a causal relationship. Over the last few decades, somewhat of a consensus has emerged between statisticians, computer scientists, and philosophers on how to represent causal claims and connect them to probabilistic relations. One strand of this work studies the conditions under which evidence accumulated from nonexperimental (observational) studies can be used to infer a causal relationship. In this paper, I compare the typical conditions required to infer that one variable is a direct cause of another in observational and experimental studies. I argue that they are essentially the same. 2
A Characterization of Markov Equivalence Classes for Directed Acyclic Graphs with Latent Variables
"... Different directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) may be Markov equivalent in the sense that they entail the same conditional independence relations among the observed variables. Meek (1995) characterizes Markov equivalence classes for DAGs (with no latent variables) by presenting a set of orientation rules ..."
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Different directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) may be Markov equivalent in the sense that they entail the same conditional independence relations among the observed variables. Meek (1995) characterizes Markov equivalence classes for DAGs (with no latent variables) by presenting a set of orientation rules that can correctly identify all arrow orientations shared by all DAGs in a Markov equivalence class, given a member of that class. For DAG models with latent variables, maximal ancestral graphs (MAGs) provide a neat representation that facilitates model search. Earlier work (Ali et al. 2005) has identified a set of orientation rules sufficient to construct all arrowheads common to a Markov equivalence class of MAGs. In this paper, we provide extra rules sufficient to construct all common tails as well. We end up with a set of orientation rules sound and complete for identifying commonalities across a Markov equivalence class of MAGs, which is particularly useful for causal inference. 1