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The Number Field Sieve
, 1990
"... The number field sieve is an algorithm to factor integers of the form r e s for small positive r and s . This note is intended as a `report on work in progress' on this algorithm. We informally describe the algorithm, discuss several implementation related aspects, and present some of the factoriza ..."
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Cited by 69 (2 self)
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The number field sieve is an algorithm to factor integers of the form r e s for small positive r and s . This note is intended as a `report on work in progress' on this algorithm. We informally describe the algorithm, discuss several implementation related aspects, and present some of the factorizations obtained so far. We also
Factoring by electronic mail
, 1990
"... In this paper we describe our distributed implementation of two factoring algorithms. the elliptic curve method (ecm) and the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve algorithm (mpqs). Since the summer of 1987. our ermimplementation on a network of MicroVAX processors at DEC’s Systems Research Center h ..."
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Cited by 52 (8 self)
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In this paper we describe our distributed implementation of two factoring algorithms. the elliptic curve method (ecm) and the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve algorithm (mpqs). Since the summer of 1987. our ermimplementation on a network of MicroVAX processors at DEC’s Systems Research Center has factored several most and more wanted numbers from the Cunningham project. In the summer of 1988. we implemented the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve algorithm on rhe same network On this network alone. we are now able to factor any!@I digit integer, or to find 35 digit factors of numbers up to 150 digits long within one month. To allow an even wider distribution of our programs we made use of electronic mail networks For the distribution of the programs and for interprocessor communicatton. Even during the mitial stage of this experiment machines all over the United States and at various places in Europe and Ausnalia conhibuted 15 percent of the total factorization effort. At all the sites where our program is running we only use cycles that would otherwise have been idle. This shows that the enormous computational task of factoring 100 digit integers with the current algoritluns can be completed almost for free. Since we use a negligible fraction of the idle cycles of alI the machines on the worldwide elecnonic mail networks. we could factor 100 digit integers within a few days with a little more help.
Parallel Algorithms for Integer Factorisation
"... The problem of finding the prime factors of large composite numbers has always been of mathematical interest. With the advent of public key cryptosystems it is also of practical importance, because the security of some of these cryptosystems, such as the RivestShamirAdelman (RSA) system, depends o ..."
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Cited by 41 (17 self)
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The problem of finding the prime factors of large composite numbers has always been of mathematical interest. With the advent of public key cryptosystems it is also of practical importance, because the security of some of these cryptosystems, such as the RivestShamirAdelman (RSA) system, depends on the difficulty of factoring the public keys. In recent years the best known integer factorisation algorithms have improved greatly, to the point where it is now easy to factor a 60decimal digit number, and possible to factor numbers larger than 120 decimal digits, given the availability of enough computing power. We describe several algorithms, including the elliptic curve method (ECM), and the multiplepolynomial quadratic sieve (MPQS) algorithm, and discuss their parallel implementation. It turns out that some of the algorithms are very well suited to parallel implementation. Doubling the degree of parallelism (i.e. the amount of hardware devoted to the problem) roughly increases the size of a number which can be factored in a fixed time by 3 decimal digits. Some recent computational results are mentioned – for example, the complete factorisation of the 617decimal digit Fermat number F11 = 2211 + 1 which was accomplished using ECM.
Recent progress and prospects for integer factorisation algorithms
 In Proc. of COCOON 2000
, 2000
"... Abstract. The integer factorisation and discrete logarithm problems are of practical importance because of the widespread use of public key cryptosystems whose security depends on the presumed difficulty of solving these problems. This paper considers primarily the integer factorisation problem. In ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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Abstract. The integer factorisation and discrete logarithm problems are of practical importance because of the widespread use of public key cryptosystems whose security depends on the presumed difficulty of solving these problems. This paper considers primarily the integer factorisation problem. In recent years the limits of the best integer factorisation algorithms have been extended greatly, due in part to Moore’s law and in part to algorithmic improvements. It is now routine to factor 100decimal digit numbers, and feasible to factor numbers of 155 decimal digits (512 bits). We outline several integer factorisation algorithms, consider their suitability for implementation on parallel machines, and give examples of their current capabilities. In particular, we consider the problem of parallel solution of the large, sparse linear systems which arise with the MPQS and NFS methods. 1
The Number of Relations in the Quadratic Sieve Algorithm
, 1996
"... The subject of our study is the single large prime variation of the quadratic sieve algorithm. We derive a formula for the average numbers of complete and incomplete relations per polynomial, directly generated by the algorithm. The number of additional complete relations from the incomplete relatio ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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The subject of our study is the single large prime variation of the quadratic sieve algorithm. We derive a formula for the average numbers of complete and incomplete relations per polynomial, directly generated by the algorithm. The number of additional complete relations from the incomplete relations is then computed by a known formula. Hence practical hints for the optimal choice of the parameter values can be derived. We further compare theoretical estimates for the total number of smooth integers in an interval with countings in practice. AMS Subject Classification (1991): 11A51, 11Y05 CR Subject Classification (1991): F.2.1 Keywords & Phrases: Factorization, Multiple Polynomial Quadratic Sieve, Vector supercomputer, Cluster of work stations 1. Introduction We assume that the reader is familiar with the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve algorithm [Bre89, Pom85, PST88, Sil87, RLW89]. We consider the single large prime variation of the algorithm and write MPQS for short. If we ...
Factorization beyond the googol with MPQS on a single computer
 CWI Quarterly
, 1991
"... For the first time a number of more than 100 decimal digits has been factorized on a single computer by means of the Multiple Polynomial Quadratic Sieve method of Kraïtchik and Pomerance (with improvements by Montgomery and Silverman). This method (MPQS) is the best one known to handle numbers which ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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For the first time a number of more than 100 decimal digits has been factorized on a single computer by means of the Multiple Polynomial Quadratic Sieve method of Kraïtchik and Pomerance (with improvements by Montgomery and Silverman). This method (MPQS) is the best one known to handle numbers which are the product of two large, approximately equal prime factors. These numbers are being used in cryptography as keys in publickey cryptosystems. The safety of such cryptosystems depends on our ability to factorize these keys. The computer used is the fourprocessor Cray YMP4/464 which was installed
Integer Factorisation on the AP1000
, 1995
"... We compare implementations of two integer factorisation algorithms, the elliptic curve method (ECM) and a variant of the Pollard "rho " method, on three machines (the Fujitsu AP1000, VP2200 and VPP500) with parallel and/or vector architectures. ECM is scalable and well suited for both vect ..."
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We compare implementations of two integer factorisation algorithms, the elliptic curve method (ECM) and a variant of the Pollard "rho " method, on three machines (the Fujitsu AP1000, VP2200 and VPP500) with parallel and/or vector architectures. ECM is scalable and well suited for both vector and parallel architectures.
Factorisation of Large Integers on some Vector and Parallel Computers
 The Australian National University TRCS9501
, 1995
"... ..."
Computational Number Theory at CWI in 19701994
, 1994
"... this paper we present a concise survey of the research in Computational ..."
Factoring Integers With Large Prime Variations of the Quadratic Sieve
, 1995
"... We present the results of many factorization runs with the single and double large prime variations (PMPQS, and PPMPQS, respectively) of the quadratic sieve factorization method on SGI workstations, and on a Cray C90 vectorcomputer. Experiments with 71, 87, and 99digit numbers show that for ..."
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We present the results of many factorization runs with the single and double large prime variations (PMPQS, and PPMPQS, respectively) of the quadratic sieve factorization method on SGI workstations, and on a Cray C90 vectorcomputer. Experiments with 71, 87, and 99digit numbers show that for our Cray C90 implementations PPMPQS beats PMPQS for numbers of more than 80 digits, and this crossover point goes down with the amount of available central memory. For PMPQS a known theoretical formula is worked out and tested that helps to predict the total running time on the basis of a short test run. The accuracy of the prediction is within 10% of the actual running time. For PPMPQS such a prediction formula is not known and the determination of an optimal choice of the parameters for a given number would require many full runs with that given number, and the use of an inadmissible amount of CPUtime. In order yet to provide measurements that can help to determine a good choic...