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417
Facing up to the problem of consciousness
 Journal of Consciousness Studies
, 1995
"... Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousnes ..."
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Cited by 186 (2 self)
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Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the
QuantumInspired Computing
, 1995
"... The paper identifies and demonstrates the feasibility of a novel computational paradigm which is inspired by the principles of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. A brief history of quantum computing and basic exposition of quantum mechanics are provided, followed by a detailed description of S ..."
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Cited by 49 (6 self)
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The paper identifies and demonstrates the feasibility of a novel computational paradigm which is inspired by the principles of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. A brief history of quantum computing and basic exposition of quantum mechanics are provided, followed by a detailed description of Shor's quantum `algorithm' for factoring very large numbers. An extension to Shor's method is described, and this leads to two further applications of `quantuminspired' methods: sorting, and the 15puzzle. In all cases, quantuminspired methods require the use of `classical' methods to determine whether the candidate answers provided by the quantuminspired methods are correct. Finally, some basic methodological principles and guidelines are provided for quantuminspired computing. The aim is not to provide a formal exposition of quantuminspired computing but to identify its novelty and potential use in tackling NPhard problems. 1 Introduction It has been estimated that every two years ...
The Power of Vacillation in Language Learning
, 1992
"... Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there ..."
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Cited by 46 (13 self)
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Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there are classes of languages that can be learned if convergence in the limit to up to (n+1) exactly correct grammars is allowed but which cannot be learned if convergence in the limit is to no more than n grammars, where the no more than n grammars can each make finitely many mistakes. This contrasts sharply with results of Barzdin and Podnieks and, later, Case and Smith, for learnability from both positive and negative data. A subset principle from a 1980 paper of Angluin is extended to the vacillatory and other criteria of this paper. This principle, provides a necessary condition for circumventing overgeneralization in learning from positive data. It is applied to prove another theorem to the eff...
Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The PenroseHameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness
 Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London (A
, 1998
"... Potential features of quantum computation could explain enigmatic aspects of consciousness. The Penrose{Hamero model (orchestrated objective reduction: ‘Orch OR’) suggests that quantum superposition and a form of quantum computation occur in microtubulescylindrical protein lattices of the cell cy ..."
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Cited by 44 (10 self)
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Potential features of quantum computation could explain enigmatic aspects of consciousness. The Penrose{Hamero model (orchestrated objective reduction: ‘Orch OR’) suggests that quantum superposition and a form of quantum computation occur in microtubulescylindrical protein lattices of the cell cytoskeleton within the brain’s neurons. Microtubules couple to and regulate neurallevel synaptic functions, and they may be ideal quantum computers because of dynamical lattice structure, quantumlevel subunit states and intermittent isolation from environmental interactions. In addition to its biological setting, the Orch OR proposal diers in an essential way from technologically envisioned quantum computers in which collapse, or reduction to classical output states, is caused by environmental decoherence (hence introducing randomness). In the Orch OR proposal, reduction of microtubule quantum superposition to classical output states occurs by an objective factorRoger Penrose’s quantum gravity threshold stemming from instability in Planckscale separations (superpositions) in spacetime geometry. Output states following Penrose’s objective reduction are neither totally deterministic nor random, but influenced by a noncomputable factor ingrained in fundamental spacetime. Taking a modern panpsychist view in which protoconscious experience and Platonic values are embedded in Planckscale spin networks, the Orch OR model portrays consciousness as brain activities linked to fundamental ripples in spacetime geometry.
Learning, Action, and Consciousness: A Hybrid Approach toward Modeling Consciousness
, 1996
"... This paper is an attempt at understanding the issue of consciousness through investigating its functional role, especially in learning, and through devising hybrid neural network models that (in a qualitative manner) approximate characteristics of human consciousness. In so doing, the paper examines ..."
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Cited by 39 (19 self)
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This paper is an attempt at understanding the issue of consciousness through investigating its functional role, especially in learning, and through devising hybrid neural network models that (in a qualitative manner) approximate characteristics of human consciousness. In so doing, the paper examines explicit and implicit learning in a variety of psychological experiments and delineates the conscious/unconscious distinction in terms of the two types of learning and their respective products. The distinctions are captured in a twolevel actionbased model Clarion. Some fundamental theoretical issues are also clarified with the help of the model. Comparisons with existing models of consciousness are made to accentuate the present approach. KEYWORDS: Neural networks, hybrid systems, consciousness, implicit learning, reinforcement learning, procedural knowledge, rule extraction, dual representation 1 INTRODUCTION 3 1 Introduction Amidst the widespread enthusiasm of recent years concerning...
Universal Concept of Complexity by the Dynamic Redundance Paradigm: Causal Randomness, Complete Wave Mechanics, and the Ultimate Unification of Knowledge (Naukova
, 1997
"... Abstract. This is a brief, nontechnical presentation of the main results of a book with the same title in which a new, rigorously defined concept of dynamic complexity is introduced and it is shown that it gives the complete and absolutely universal description of both representative particular cas ..."
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Cited by 33 (18 self)
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Abstract. This is a brief, nontechnical presentation of the main results of a book with the same title in which a new, rigorously defined concept of dynamic complexity is introduced and it is shown that it gives the complete and absolutely universal description of both representative particular cases of complex dynamics and arbitrary dynamical system behaviour. This crucial extension with respect to the existing concepts is achieved due to a new, universally modified form of arbitrary dynamic equations, avoiding the usual limitations of the essentially perturbative, onedimensional approach of the canonical, linear (unitary) science (including any superficially defined, integrable 'nonlinearities'). This modified description shows that an equation describing any real behaviour with more than one effective dimension possesses many solutions, each of them being complete in the usual sense and approximately equivalent to some ordinary, 'exact ' solution of the linear science. Therefore these elementary complete solutions, called realisations, are incompatible among them and, being equivalent and thus equally probable, permanently and spontaneously replace one another. This discovery, referred to as the dynamic redundance paradigm, provides a qualitatively new understanding of the notion of existence itself and universally explains all the known patterns of dynamic behaviour within the ensuing single concept. It provides, in particular, the causal, dynamically based and consistent definition of randomness and probability (or fundamental
The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis
"... What happens when machines become more intelligent than humans? One view is that this event will be followed by an explosion to evergreater levels of intelligence, as each generation of machines creates more intelligent machines in turn. This intelligence explosion is now often known as the “singul ..."
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Cited by 33 (1 self)
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What happens when machines become more intelligent than humans? One view is that this event will be followed by an explosion to evergreater levels of intelligence, as each generation of machines creates more intelligent machines in turn. This intelligence explosion is now often known as the “singularity”.
QuantumInspired Genetic Algorithms
 In Proceedings of the 1996 IEE InternationalConference on Evolutionary Computation(ICEC96
, 1995
"... A novel evolutionary computing method  quantum inspired genetic algorithms  is introduced, where concepts and principles of quantum mechanics are used to inform and inspire more efficient evolutionary computing methods. The basic terminology of quantum mechanics is introduced before a comparis ..."
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Cited by 31 (2 self)
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A novel evolutionary computing method  quantum inspired genetic algorithms  is introduced, where concepts and principles of quantum mechanics are used to inform and inspire more efficient evolutionary computing methods. The basic terminology of quantum mechanics is introduced before a comparison is made between a classical genetic algorithm and a quantum inspired method for the travelling salesperson problem. It is informally shown that the quantum inspired genetic algorithm performs better than the classical counterpart for a small domain. The paper concludes with some speculative comments concerning the relationship between quantum inspired genetic algorithms and various complexity classes. This paper will be presented at the IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC96) to be held at Nogaya, Japan, in May 1996. I. Introduction Quantuminspired computing [7] is characterised by: 1. the use of a `quantuminspired' computational method which is inspired by...
Entanglement and quantum computation
 The Geometric Universe
, 1998
"... The phenomenon of quantum entanglement is perhaps the most enigmatic feature of the formalism of quantum theory. It underlies many of the most curious and controversial aspects of the quantum mechanical description of the world. In [1] Penrose gives a delightful and accessible account of entanglemen ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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The phenomenon of quantum entanglement is perhaps the most enigmatic feature of the formalism of quantum theory. It underlies many of the most curious and controversial aspects of the quantum mechanical description of the world. In [1] Penrose gives a delightful and accessible account of entanglement illustrated by some