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413
Quantum Equilibrium and the Origin of Absolute Uncertainty
, 1992
"... The quantum formalism is a "measurement" formalisma phenomenological formalism describing certain macroscopic regularities. We argue that it can be regarded, and best be understood, as arising from Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schr6dinger's equation for a system of particles when ..."
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Cited by 112 (47 self)
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The quantum formalism is a "measurement" formalisma phenomenological formalism describing certain macroscopic regularities. We argue that it can be regarded, and best be understood, as arising from Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schr6dinger's equation for a system of particles when we merely insist that "particles " means particles. While distinctly nonNewtonian, Bohmian mechanics is a fully deterministic theory of particles in motion, a motion choreographed by the wave function. We find that a Bohmian universe, though deterministic, evolves in such a manner that an appearance of randomness emerges, precisely as described by the quantum formalism and given, for example, by "p = IV [ 2.,, A crucial ingredient in our analysis of the origin of this randomness is the notion of the effective wave function of a subsystem, a notion of interest in its own right and of relevance to any discussion of quantum theory. When the quantum formalism is regarded as arising in this way, the paradoxes and perplexities so often associated with (nonrelativistic) quantum theory simply evaporate.
Consequences and Limits of Nonlocal Strategies
, 2010
"... Thispaperinvestigatesthepowersandlimitationsofquantum entanglementinthecontext of cooperative games of incomplete information. We give several examples of such nonlocal games where strategies that make use of entanglement outperform all possible classical strategies. One implication ofthese examples ..."
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Cited by 72 (17 self)
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Thispaperinvestigatesthepowersandlimitationsofquantum entanglementinthecontext of cooperative games of incomplete information. We give several examples of such nonlocal games where strategies that make use of entanglement outperform all possible classical strategies. One implication ofthese examplesis that entanglement canprofoundly affectthesoundness property of twoprover interactive proof systems. We then establish limits on the probability with which strategies making use of entanglement can win restricted types of nonlocal games. These upperbounds mayberegardedasgeneralizationsof Tsirelsontypeinequalities, which place bounds on the extent to which quantum information can allow for the violation of Bell inequalities. We also investigate the amount of entanglement required by optimal and nearly optimal quantum strategies forsome games.
Equivalence of additivity questions in quantum information theory
 Comm. Math. Phys
"... We reduce the number of open additivity problems in quantum information theory by showing that four of them are equivalent. Namely, we show that the conjectures of additivity of the minimum output entropy of a quantum channel, additivity of the Holevo expression for the classical capacity of a quant ..."
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Cited by 53 (2 self)
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We reduce the number of open additivity problems in quantum information theory by showing that four of them are equivalent. Namely, we show that the conjectures of additivity of the minimum output entropy of a quantum channel, additivity of the Holevo expression for the classical capacity of a quantum channel, additivity of the entanglement of formation, and strong superadditivity of the entanglement of formation, are either all true or all false. 1
The Cost of Exactly Simulating Quantum Entanglement With Classical Communication
, 1999
"... We investigate the amount of communication that must augment classical local hidden variable models in order to simulate the behaviour of entangled quantum systems. We consider the scenario where a bipartite measurement is given from a set of possibilities and the goal is to obtain exactly the same ..."
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Cited by 39 (11 self)
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We investigate the amount of communication that must augment classical local hidden variable models in order to simulate the behaviour of entangled quantum systems. We consider the scenario where a bipartite measurement is given from a set of possibilities and the goal is to obtain exactly the same correlations that arise when the actual quantum system is measured. We show that, in the case of a single pair of qubits in a Bell state, a constant number of bits of communication is always sufficientregardless of the number of measurements under consideration. We also show that, in the case of a system of n Bell states, a constant times 2 n bits of communication are necessary. 1 Introduction Bell's celebrated theorem [1] shows that certain scenarios involving bipartite quantum measurements result in correlations that are impossible to simulate with a classical system if the measurement events are spacelike separated. If the measurement events are timelike separated then classical s...
Finite precision measurement nullifies the KochenSpecker theorem
, 1999
"... Only finite precision measurements are experimentally reasonable, and they cannot distinguish a dense subset from its closure. We show that the rational vectors, which are dense in S 2, can be colored so that the contradiction with hidden variable theories provided by KochenSpecker constructions do ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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Only finite precision measurements are experimentally reasonable, and they cannot distinguish a dense subset from its closure. We show that the rational vectors, which are dense in S 2, can be colored so that the contradiction with hidden variable theories provided by KochenSpecker constructions does not obtain. Thus, in contrast to violation of the Bell inequalities, no quantumoverclassical advantage for information processing can be derived from the KochenSpecker theorem alone.
Quantum Communication and Complexity
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2000
"... In the setting of communication complexity, two distributed parties want to compute a function depending on both their inputs, using as little communication as possible. The required communication can sometimes be significantly lowered if we allow the parties the use of quantum communication. We sur ..."
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Cited by 32 (13 self)
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In the setting of communication complexity, two distributed parties want to compute a function depending on both their inputs, using as little communication as possible. The required communication can sometimes be significantly lowered if we allow the parties the use of quantum communication. We survey the main results of the young area of quantum communication complexity: its relation to teleportation and dense coding, the main examples of fast quantum communication protocols, lower bounds, and some applications. 1 Introduction The area of communication complexity deals with the following type of problem. There are two separated parties, called Alice and Bob. Alice receives some input x 2 X, Bob receives some y 2 Y , and together they want to compute some function f(x; y). As the value f(x; y) will generally depend on both x and y, neither Alice nor Bob will have sufficient information to do the computation by themselves, so they will have to communicate in order to achieve their go...
Quantum Equilibrium and the Role of Operators as Observables in Quantum Theory
, 2003
"... Bohmian mechanics is the most naively obvious embedding imaginable of Schrödinger’s equation into a completely coherent physical theory. It describes a world in which particles move in a highly nonNewtonian sort of way, one which may at first appear to have little to do with the spectrum of predict ..."
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Cited by 29 (14 self)
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Bohmian mechanics is the most naively obvious embedding imaginable of Schrödinger’s equation into a completely coherent physical theory. It describes a world in which particles move in a highly nonNewtonian sort of way, one which may at first appear to have little to do with the spectrum of predictions of quantum mechanics. It turns out, however, that as a consequence of the defining dynamical equations of Bohmian mechanics, when a system has wave function ψ its configuration is typically random, with probability density ρ given by ψ², the quantum equilibrium distribution. It also turns out that the entire quantum formalism, operators as observables and all the rest, naturally emerges in Bohmian mechanics from the analysis of “measurements. ” This analysis reveals the status of operators as observables in the description of quantum phenomena, and facilitates a clear view of the range of applicability of the usual quantum mechanical formulas.
Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality with efficient detection
 Nature
, 2001
"... Local realism is the idea that objects have definite properties whether or not they are measured, and that measurements of these properties are not affected by events taking place sufficiently far away. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) used these reasonable assumptions... ..."
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Cited by 29 (1 self)
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Local realism is the idea that objects have definite properties whether or not they are measured, and that measurements of these properties are not affected by events taking place sufficiently far away. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) used these reasonable assumptions...
Contextualizing concepts using a mathematical generalization of the quantum formalism
 Trends in Cognitive Science
, 2000
"... We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was deve ..."
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Cited by 28 (18 self)
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We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Similar problems arising with concepts motivated the formal treatment introduced here. Concepts are viewed not as fixed representations, but entities existing in states of potentiality that require interaction with a context—a stimulus or another concept—to ‘collapse ’ to an instantiated form (e.g. exemplar, prototype, or other possibly imaginary instance). The stimulus situation plays the role of the measurement in physics, acting as context that induces a change of the cognitive state from superposition state to collapsed state. The collapsed state is more likely to consist of a conjunction of concepts for associative than analytic thought because more stimulus or concept properties take part in the collapse. We provide two contextual measures of conceptual distance—one using collapse probabilities and the other weighted properties—and show how they can be applied to conjunctions using the pet fish problem.
Simulating Quantum Mechanics by NonContextual Hidden Variables
, 2000
"... No physical measurement can be performed with infinite precision. This leaves a loophole in the standard nogo arguments against noncontextual hidden variables. All such arguments rely on choosing special sets of quantummechanical observables with measurement outcomes that cannot be simulated non ..."
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Cited by 27 (1 self)
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No physical measurement can be performed with infinite precision. This leaves a loophole in the standard nogo arguments against noncontextual hidden variables. All such arguments rely on choosing special sets of quantummechanical observables with measurement outcomes that cannot be simulated noncontextually. As a consequence, these arguments do not exclude the hypothesis that the class of physical measurements in fact corresponds to a dense subset of all theoretically possible measurements with outcomes and quantum probabilities that can be recovered from a noncontextual hidden variable model. We show here by explicit construction that there are indeed such noncontextual hidden variable models, both for projection valued and positive operator valued measurements.