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Maude: Specification and Programming in Rewriting Logic
, 2001
"... Maude is a highlevel language and a highperformance system supporting executable specification and declarative programming in rewriting logic. Since rewriting logic contains equational logic, Maude also supports equational specification and programming in its sublanguage of functional modules and ..."
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Cited by 194 (65 self)
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Maude is a highlevel language and a highperformance system supporting executable specification and declarative programming in rewriting logic. Since rewriting logic contains equational logic, Maude also supports equational specification and programming in its sublanguage of functional modules and theories. The underlying equational logic chosen for Maude is membership equational logic, that has sorts, subsorts, operator overloading, and partiality definable by membership and equality conditions. Rewriting logic is reflective, in the sense of being able to express its own metalevel at the object level. Reflection is systematically exploited in Maude endowing the language with powerful metaprogramming capabilities, including both userdefinable module operations and declarative strategies to guide the deduction process. This paper explains and illustrates with examples the main concepts of Maude's language design, including its underlying logic, functional, system and objectoriented modules, as well as parameterized modules, theories, and views. We also explain how Maude supports reflection, metaprogramming and internal strategies. The paper outlines the principles underlying the Maude system implementation, including its semicompilation techniques. We conclude with some remarks about applications, work on a formal environment for Maude, and a mobile language extension of Maude.
Rewriting Logic as a Logical and Semantic Framework
, 1993
"... Rewriting logic [72] is proposed as a logical framework in which other logics can be represented, and as a semantic framework for the specification of languages and systems. Using concepts from the theory of general logics [70], representations of an object logic L in a framework logic F are und ..."
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Cited by 157 (54 self)
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Rewriting logic [72] is proposed as a logical framework in which other logics can be represented, and as a semantic framework for the specification of languages and systems. Using concepts from the theory of general logics [70], representations of an object logic L in a framework logic F are understood as mappings L ! F that translate one logic into the other in a conservative way. The ease with which such maps can be defined for a number of quite different logics of interest, including equational logic, Horn logic with equality, linear logic, logics with quantifiers, and any sequent calculus presentation of a logic for a very general notion of "sequent," is discussed in detail. Using the fact that rewriting logic is reflective, it is often possible to reify inside rewriting logic itself a representation map L ! RWLogic for the finitely presentable theories of L. Such a reification takes the form of a map between the abstract data types representing the finitary theories of...
Principles of Maude
, 1996
"... This paper introduces the basic concepts of the rewriting logic language Maude and discusses its implementation. Maude is a widespectrum language supporting formal specification, rapid prototyping, and parallel programming. Maude's rewriting logic paradigm includes the functional and objector ..."
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Cited by 127 (28 self)
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This paper introduces the basic concepts of the rewriting logic language Maude and discusses its implementation. Maude is a widespectrum language supporting formal specification, rapid prototyping, and parallel programming. Maude's rewriting logic paradigm includes the functional and objectoriented paradigms as sublanguages. The fact that rewriting logic is reflective leads to novel metaprogramming capabilities that can greatly increase software reusability and adaptability. Control of the rewriting computation is achieved through internal strategy languages defined inside the logic. Maude's rewrite engine is designed with the explicit goal of being highly extensible and of supporting rapid prototyping and formal methods applications, but its semicompilation techniques allow it to meet those goals with good performance. 1 Introduction Maude is a logical language based on rewriting logic [16,23,19]. It is therefore related to other rewriting logic languages such as Cafe [10], ELAN [...
CAPSL Integrated Protocol Environment
 IN PROC. OF DARPA INFORMATION SURVIVABILITY CONFERENCE (DISCEX 2000), PP 207221, IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY
, 2000
"... CAPSL, a Common Authentication Protocol Specification Language, is a highlevel language to support security analysis of cryptographic authentication and key distribution protocols. It is translated to CIL, an intermediate language expressing state transitions with termrewriting rules. Connectors a ..."
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Cited by 66 (7 self)
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CAPSL, a Common Authentication Protocol Specification Language, is a highlevel language to support security analysis of cryptographic authentication and key distribution protocols. It is translated to CIL, an intermediate language expressing state transitions with termrewriting rules. Connectors are being written to adapt CIL to supply input to different security analysis tools, including PVS for inductive verification and Maude for modelchecking.
Protocol Specification and Analysis in Maude
 Proc. of Workshop on Formal Methods and Security Protocols
, 1998
"... This paper proposes rewriting logic as an executable specification formalism for security protocols that offers some novel advantages. A messagepassing objectoriented approach seems particularly natural for communication protocols and can be naturally formalized in rewriting logic. This is illustra ..."
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Cited by 48 (11 self)
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This paper proposes rewriting logic as an executable specification formalism for security protocols that offers some novel advantages. A messagepassing objectoriented approach seems particularly natural for communication protocols and can be naturally formalized in rewriting logic. This is illustrated by using the NeedhamSchroeder PublicKey protocol as a running example. The rewriting logicbased Maude interpreter [CELM96] offers also some useful advantages. Efficient executability allows prototyping and debugging of protocol specifications. But since a concurrent system can have many different behaviors, to properly analyze the system it becomes important to explore not just the single execution provided by some default strategy, but many other executions. Maude supports userdefined execution strategies, including strategies such as breadthfirstsearch that can exhaustively explore all the executions of a system. This is very helpful in uncovering security flaws under unforeseen ...
Rewriting Logic Semantics: From Language Specifications to Formal Analysis Tools
 In Proceedings of the IJCAR 2004. LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a wellsuited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our exper ..."
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Cited by 47 (11 self)
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Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a wellsuited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our experience in just the few weeks required to define a language’s semantics even for large languages like Java. By combining, yet distinguishing, both equations and rules, rewriting logic semantic definitions unify both the semantic equations of equational semantics (in their higherorder denotational version or their firstorder algebraic counterpart) and the semantic rules of SOS. Several limitations of both SOS and equational semantics are thus overcome within this unified framework. By using a highperformance implementation of rewriting logic such as Maude, a language’s formal specification can be automatically transformed into an efficient interpreter. Furthermore, by using Maude’s breadth first search command, we also obtain for free a semidecision procedure for finding failures of safety properties; and by using Maude’s LTL model checker, we obtain, also for free, a decision procedure for LTL properties of finitestate programs. These possibilities, and the competitive performance of the analysis tools thus obtained, are illustrated by means of a concurrent Camllike language; similar experience with Java (source and JVM) programs is also summarized. 1
Building Equational Proving Tools by Reflection in Rewriting Logic
 In Cafe: An IndustrialStrength Algebraic Formal Method
, 1998
"... This paper explains the design and use of two equational proving tools, namely an inductive theorem prover  to prove theorems about equational specifications with an initial algebra semantics  and a ChurchRosser checkerto check whether such specifications satisfy the ChurchRosser property. ..."
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Cited by 40 (20 self)
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This paper explains the design and use of two equational proving tools, namely an inductive theorem prover  to prove theorems about equational specifications with an initial algebra semantics  and a ChurchRosser checkerto check whether such specifications satisfy the ChurchRosser property. These tools can be used to prove properties of ordersorted equational specifications in Cafe [11] and of membership equational logic specifications in Maude [7, 6]. The tools have been written entirely in Maude and are in fact executable specifications in rewriting logic of the formal inference systems that they implement.
Process and Term Tile Logic
, 1998
"... In a similar way as 2categories can be regarded as a special case of double categories, rewriting logic (in the unconditional case) can be embedded into the more general tile logic, where also sideeffects and rewriting synchronization are considered. Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis o ..."
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Cited by 34 (25 self)
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In a similar way as 2categories can be regarded as a special case of double categories, rewriting logic (in the unconditional case) can be embedded into the more general tile logic, where also sideeffects and rewriting synchronization are considered. Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis of several language implementation efforts, it is useful to map tile logic back into rewriting logic in a conservative way, to obtain executable specifications of tile systems. We extend the results of earlier work by two of the authors, focusing on some interesting cases where the mathematical structures representing configurations (i.e., states) and effects (i.e., observable actions) are very similar, in the sense that they have in common some auxiliary structure (e.g., for tupling, projecting, etc.). In particular, we give in full detail the descriptions of two such cases where (net) processlike and usual term structures are employed. Corresponding to these two cases, we introduce two ca...
Composable Semantic Models for Actor Theories
 HigherOrder and Symbolic Computation
, 1998
"... We define three semantic models for actor computation starting with a generalization to open systems of Clinger's event diagram model, and forming two abstractions: interaction diagrams and interaction paths. An algebra is defined on each semantic domain with operations for parallel composit ..."
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Cited by 31 (10 self)
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We define three semantic models for actor computation starting with a generalization to open systems of Clinger's event diagram model, and forming two abstractions: interaction diagrams and interaction paths. An algebra is defined on each semantic domain with operations for parallel composition, hiding of internal actors, and renaming. We use these models to provide semantics for descriptions of actor components based on actor theories and show that the semantics is a component algebra homomorphism. 1
An Actor Rewriting Theory
, 1996
"... We present a semantic framework for actor systems based on rewriting logic. This framework accounts for fairness and provides a variety of semantics for actor system components that have good composability properties. 1 Introduction We are interested in developing a semantic foundation for open dis ..."
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Cited by 27 (8 self)
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We present a semantic framework for actor systems based on rewriting logic. This framework accounts for fairness and provides a variety of semantics for actor system components that have good composability properties. 1 Introduction We are interested in developing a semantic foundation for open distributed systems that supports specifying, composing, and reasoning about components of open distributed systems. We take the actor model of computation [12,1,2] as our starting point. Actors are independent computational agents that interact solely via message passing. An actor can create other actors; send messages; and modify its own local state. An actor can only effect the local state of other actors by sending them messages, and it can only send messages to its acquaintances  addresses of actors it was given upon creation, it received in a message or actors it created. Actor semantics requires computations to be fair. We take two views of actors: as individuals and as elements of com...