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Variations on Algebra: monadicity and generalisations of equational theories
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 2001
"... this paper the author was partially supported by an SERC/EPSRC Advanced Research Fellowship, EPSRC Research grant GR/L54639, and EU Working Group APPSEM ..."
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this paper the author was partially supported by an SERC/EPSRC Advanced Research Fellowship, EPSRC Research grant GR/L54639, and EU Working Group APPSEM
Categorical Term Rewriting: Monads and Modularity
 University of Edinburgh
, 1998
"... Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewriting syste ..."
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Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewriting systems from smaller ones. Of particular interest is whether key properties are modular, thatis,ifthe components of a structured term rewriting system satisfy a property, then does the term rewriting system as a whole? A body of literature addresses this problem, but most of the results and proofs depend on strong syntactic conditions and do not easily generalize. Although many specific modularity results are known, a coherent framework which explains the underlying principles behind these results is lacking. This thesis posits that part of the problem is the usual, concrete and syntaxoriented semantics of term rewriting systems, and that a semantics is needed which on the one hand elides unnecessary syntactic details but on the other hand still possesses enough expressive power to model the key concepts arising from
Partial Horn logic and cartesian categories
 ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC 145 (3) (2007), PP. 314 353
, 2009
"... A logic is developed in which function symbols are allowed to represent partial functions. It has the usual rules of logic (in the form of a sequent calculus) except that the substitution rule has to be modified. It is developed here in its minimal form, with equality and conjunction, as partial Hor ..."
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A logic is developed in which function symbols are allowed to represent partial functions. It has the usual rules of logic (in the form of a sequent calculus) except that the substitution rule has to be modified. It is developed here in its minimal form, with equality and conjunction, as partial Horn logic. Various kinds of logical theory are equivalent: partial Horn theories, quasiequational theories (partial Horn theories without predicate symbols), cartesian theories and essentially algebraic theories. The logic is sound and complete with respect to models in Set, and sound with respect to models in any cartesian (finite limit) category. The simplicity of the quasiequational form allows an easy predicative constructive proof of the free partial model theorem for cartesian theories: that if a theory morphism is given from one cartesian theory to another, then the forgetful (reduct) functor from one model category to the other has a left adjoint. Various examples of quasiequational theory are studied, including those of cartesian categories and of other classes of categories. For each quasiequational theory T another, CartϖT, is constructed, whose models are cartesian categories equipped with models of T. Its initial model, the classifying category for T, has properties similar to those of the syntactic category, but more precise with respect to strict cartesian functors.
Sketches: Outline with references
, 1993
"... This package contains the original article, written in December, 1993, and this addendum, ..."
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This package contains the original article, written in December, 1993, and this addendum,
Generalised Sketches as an algebraic graphbased framework for semantic modeling and database design
, 1997
"... A graphbased specification language and the corresponding machinery are described as stating a basic framework for semantic modeling and database design. It is shown that a few challenging theoretical questions in the area, and some of hot practical problems as well, can be successfully approached ..."
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A graphbased specification language and the corresponding machinery are described as stating a basic framework for semantic modeling and database design. It is shown that a few challenging theoretical questions in the area, and some of hot practical problems as well, can be successfully approached in the framework. The machinery has its origin in the classical sketches invented by Ehresmann and is close to their generalization recently proposed by Makkai. There are two essential distinctions from Makkai's sketches. One consists in a different  more direct  formalization of sketches that categorists (and database designers) usually draw. The second distinction is more fundamental and consists in introducing operational sketches specifying complex diagram operations over ordinary (predicate) sketches, correspondingly, models of operational sketches are diagram algebras. Together with the notion of parsing operational sketches, this is the main mathematical contribution of the pape...
MCompleteness Is Seldom Monadic Over Graphs
 THEORY APPL. CATEG
, 2000
"... For a set M of graphs the category CatM of all Mcomplete categories and all strictly Mcontinuous functors is known to be monadic over Cat. The question of monadicity of CatM over the category of graphs is known to have an affirmative answer when M specifies either (i) all finite limits, or (ii ..."
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For a set M of graphs the category CatM of all Mcomplete categories and all strictly Mcontinuous functors is known to be monadic over Cat. The question of monadicity of CatM over the category of graphs is known to have an affirmative answer when M specifies either (i) all finite limits, or (ii) all finite products, or (iii) equalizers and terminal objects, or (iv) just terminal objects. We prove that, conversely, these four cases are (essentially) the only cases of monadicity of CatM over the category of graphs, provided that M is a set of finite graphs containing the empty graph.
Contexts for Human Action
"... We argue that the mathematics developed for the semantics of computer languages can be fruitfully applied to problems in human communication and action. Keywords: 1. ..."
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We argue that the mathematics developed for the semantics of computer languages can be fruitfully applied to problems in human communication and action. Keywords: 1.
Constructing Orders By Means of Inductive Definitions
"... We present a class of algebraic theories that are enriched over a novel Symmetrical Monoidal Closed structure on the category of graphs, whose free models are posets that are equipped with an induction principle, which is easily formalized in type theory. We give examples. The development of comput ..."
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We present a class of algebraic theories that are enriched over a novel Symmetrical Monoidal Closed structure on the category of graphs, whose free models are posets that are equipped with an induction principle, which is easily formalized in type theory. We give examples. The development of computer science has given a new impulse to the theory of inductive denitions. It was classically based on set theory a la Zermelo (for a survey see [Acz77]), but the needs of the theory of data types, and those of type theory, has compelled people to look towards universal algebra and category theory for inspiration and paradigms. In particular it has been known for a long time that the notion of free structure is closely related to that of induction principle, at the very least since Lawvere's categorical axiomatization of natural numbers [Law64]. But a lot of mathematical structures, be they algebraic or topological, admit a free model, and it is also known that those that can be said to den...
Categorical Term Rewriting:
, 1997
"... Abstract Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewrit ..."
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Abstract Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewriting systems from smaller ones. Of particular interest is whether key properties are modular, that is, if the components of a structured term rewriting system satisfy a property, then does the term rewriting system as a whole? A body of literature addresses this problem, but most of the results and proofs depend on strong syntactic conditions and do not easily generalize. Although many specific modularity results are known, a coherent framework which explains the underlying principles behind these results is lacking. This thesis posits that part of the problem is the usual, concrete and syntaxoriented semantics of term rewriting systems, and that a semantics is needed which on the one hand elides unnecessary syntactic details but on the other hand still possesses enough expressive power to model the key concepts arising from the term structure, such as substitutions, layers, redexes etc. Drawing on the concepts of category theory, such a semantics is proposed, based on the concept of a monad, generalising the very elegant treatment of equational presentations in category theory. The theoretical basis of this work is the theory of enriched monads. It is shown how structuring operations are modelled on the level of monads, and that the semantics is compositional (it preserves the structuring operations). Modularity results can now be obtained directly at the level of combining monads without recourse to the syntax at all. As an application and demonstration of the usefulness of this approach, two modularity results for the disjoint union of two term rewriting systems are proven, the modularity of confluence (Toyama's theorem) and the modularity of strong normalization for a particular class of term rewriting systems (noncollapsing term rewriting systems). The proofs in the categorical setting provide a mild generalisation of these results.
Categorical Term Rewriting:
, 1997
"... Abstract Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewrit ..."
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Abstract Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewriting systems from smaller ones. Of particular interest is whether key properties are modular, that is, if the components of a structured term rewriting system satisfy a property, then does the term rewriting system as a whole? A body of literature addresses this problem, but most of the results and proofs depend on strong syntactic conditions and do not easily generalize. Although many specific modularity results are known, a coherent framework which explains the underlying principles behind these results is lacking. This thesis posits that part of the problem is the usual, concrete and syntaxoriented semantics of term rewriting systems, and that a semantics is needed which on the one hand elides unnecessary syntactic details but on the other hand still possesses enough expressive power to model the key concepts arising from the term structure, such as substitutions, layers, redexes etc. Drawing on the concepts of category theory, such a semantics is proposed, based on the concept of a monad, generalising the very elegant treatment of equational presentations in category theory. The theoretical basis of this work is the theory of enriched monads. It is shown how structuring operations are modelled on the level of monads, and that the semantics is compositional (it preserves the structuring operations). Modularity results can now be obtained directly at the level of combining monads without recourse to the syntax at all. As an application and demonstration of the usefulness of this approach, two modularity results for the disjoint union of two term rewriting systems are proven, the modularity of confluence (Toyama's theorem) and the modularity of strong normalization for a particular class of term rewriting systems (noncollapsing term rewriting systems). The proofs in the categorical setting provide a mild generalisation of these results.