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28
Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses
 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
, 2002
"... Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of ident ..."
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Cited by 104 (1 self)
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Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of identifiability. Nonnormality and missing data problems should also be addressed. A complete set of parameters and their standard errors is desirable, and it will often be convenient to supply the correlation matrix and discrepancies, as well as goodnessoffit indices, so that readers can exercise independent critical judgment. A survey of fairly representative studies compares recent practice with the principles of reporting recommended here.
Limited information estimation and testing of Thurstonian models for paired comparison data under multiple judgment sampling
 Psychometrika
"... We relate Thurstonian models for paired comparisons data to Thurstonian models for ranking data, which assign zero probabilities to all intransitive patterns. We also propose an intermediate model for paired comparisons data that assigns nonzero probabilities to all transitive patterns and to some b ..."
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Cited by 19 (11 self)
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We relate Thurstonian models for paired comparisons data to Thurstonian models for ranking data, which assign zero probabilities to all intransitive patterns. We also propose an intermediate model for paired comparisons data that assigns nonzero probabilities to all transitive patterns and to some but not all intransitive patterns. There is a close correspondence between the multidimensional normal ogive model employed in educational testing and Thurstone’s model for paired comparisons data under multiple judgment sampling with minimal identification restrictions. Alike the normal ogive model, Thurstonian models have two formulations, a factor analytic and an IRT formulation. We use the factor analytic formulation to estimate this model from the first and second order marginals of the contingency table using estimators proposed by Muthén. We also propose a statistic to assess the fit of these models to the first and second order marginals of the contingency table. This is important, as a model may reproduce well the estimated thresholds and tetrachoric correlations, yet fail to reproduce the marginals of the contingency table if the assumption of multivariate normality is incorrect. A simulation study is performed to investigate the performance of three alternative limited information estimators which differ in the procedure used in their final stage: unweighted least squares (ULS), diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS), and full weighted least squares (WLS). Both the ULS and DWLS show a good performance with medium size problems and small samples, with a slight better performance of the ULS estimator.
The TETRAD Project: Constraint Based Aids to Causal Model Specification
 MULTIVARIATE BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH
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Identifying direct causal effects in linear models
, 2005
"... This paper deals with the problem of identifying direct causal effects in recursive linear structural equation models. Using techniques developed for graphical causal models, we show that a model can be decomposed into a set of submodels such that the identification problem can be solved independent ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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This paper deals with the problem of identifying direct causal effects in recursive linear structural equation models. Using techniques developed for graphical causal models, we show that a model can be decomposed into a set of submodels such that the identification problem can be solved independently in each submodel. We provide a new identification method that identifies causal effects by solving a set of algebraic equations.
Thurstonian modeling of ranking data via mean and covariance structure analysis
 Psychometrika
, 1999
"... Although Thurstonian models provide an attractive representation of choice behavior, they have not been extensively used in ranking applications since only recently efficient estimation methods for these models have been developed. These, however, require the use of specialpurpose estimation progra ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Although Thurstonian models provide an attractive representation of choice behavior, they have not been extensively used in ranking applications since only recently efficient estimation methods for these models have been developed. These, however, require the use of specialpurpose estimation programs, which limits their applicability. Here we introduce a formulation of Thurstonian ranking models that turns an idiosyncratic estimation problem into an estimation problem involving mean and covariance structures with dichotomous indicators. Wellknown standard solutions for the latter can be readily applied to this specific problem, and as a result any Thurstonian model for ranking data can be fitted using existing general purpose software for mean and covariance structure analysis. Although the most popular programs for covafiance structure analysis (e.g., LISREL and EQS) cannot be presently used to estimate Thurstonian ranking models, other programs such as MECOSA already exist that can be straightforwardly used to estimate these models.
Identifying causal effects with computer algebra, in
 Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2010
, 2010
"... The longstanding identification problem for causal effects in graphical models has many partial results but lacks a systematic study. We show how computer algebra can be used to either prove that a causal effect can be identified, generically identified, or show that the effect is not generically i ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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The longstanding identification problem for causal effects in graphical models has many partial results but lacks a systematic study. We show how computer algebra can be used to either prove that a causal effect can be identified, generically identified, or show that the effect is not generically identifiable. We report on the results of our computations for linear structural equation models, where we determine precisely which causal effects are generically identifiable for all graphs on three and four vertices. 1
USING FIRM OPTIMIZATION TO EVALUATE AND ESTIMATE PRODUCTIVITY AND RETURNS TO SCALE
, 2010
"... At the firm level, revenue and costs are well measured but prices and quantities are not. This paper shows that because of these data limitations estimates of returns to scale at the firm level are for the revenue function, not production function. Given this observation, the paper argues that, unde ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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At the firm level, revenue and costs are well measured but prices and quantities are not. This paper shows that because of these data limitations estimates of returns to scale at the firm level are for the revenue function, not production function. Given this observation, the paper argues that, under weak assumptions, microlevel estimates of returns to scale are often inconsistent with profit maximization or imply implausibly large profits. The puzzle arises because popular estimators ignore heterogeneity and endogeneity in factor/product prices, assume perfect elasticity of factor supply curves or neglect the restrictions imposed by profit maximization (cost minimization) so that estimators are inconsistent or poorly identified. The paper argues that simple structural estimators can address these problems. Specifically, the paper proposes a fullinformation estimator that models the cost and the revenue functions simultaneously and accounts for unobserved heterogeneity in productivity and factor prices symmetrically. The strength of the proposed estimator is illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical application. Finally, the paper discusses a number of implications of estimating revenue functions rather than production functions and demonstrates that the profit share in revenue is a robust nonparametric economic diagnostic for estimates of returns to scale.