Results 1  10
of
33
Mechanism design via differential privacy
 Proceedings of the 48th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2007
"... We study the role that privacypreserving algorithms, which prevent the leakage of specific information about participants, can play in the design of mechanisms for strategic agents, which must encourage players to honestly report information. Specifically, we show that the recent notion of differen ..."
Abstract

Cited by 103 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We study the role that privacypreserving algorithms, which prevent the leakage of specific information about participants, can play in the design of mechanisms for strategic agents, which must encourage players to honestly report information. Specifically, we show that the recent notion of differential privacy [15, 14], in addition to its own intrinsic virtue, can ensure that participants have limited effect on the outcome of the mechanism, and as a consequence have limited incentive to lie. More precisely, mechanisms with differential privacy are approximate dominant strategy under arbitrary player utility functions, are automatically resilient to coalitions, and easily allow repeatability. We study several special cases of the unlimited supply auction problem, providing new results for digital goods auctions, attribute auctions, and auctions with arbitrary structural constraints on the prices. As an important prelude to developing a privacypreserving auction mechanism, we introduce and study a generalization of previous privacy work that accommodates the high sensitivity of the auction setting, where a single participant may dramatically alter the optimal fixed price, and a slight change in the offered price may take the revenue from optimal to zero. 1
Competitive Auctions
, 2002
"... We study a class of singleround, sealedbid auctions for items in unlimited supply, such as digital goods. We introduce the notion of competitive auctions. A competitive auction is truthful (i.e., encourages buyers to bid their utility) and yields profit that is roughly within a constant factor of ..."
Abstract

Cited by 79 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We study a class of singleround, sealedbid auctions for items in unlimited supply, such as digital goods. We introduce the notion of competitive auctions. A competitive auction is truthful (i.e., encourages buyers to bid their utility) and yields profit that is roughly within a constant factor of the profit of optimal fixed pricing for all inputs. We justify the use of optimal fixed pricing as a benchmark for evaluating competitive auction profit. We show that several randomized auctions are truthful and competitive and that no truthful deterministic auction is competitive. Our results extend to bounded supply markets, for which we also get truthful and competitive auctions.
Adaptive LimitedSupply Online Auctions
 In Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce
, 2004
"... We study a limitedsupply online auction problem, in which an auctioneer has k goods to sell and bidders arrive and depart dynamically. We suppose that agent valuations are drawn independently from some unknown distribution and construct an adaptive auction that is nevertheless value and timestrat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 72 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We study a limitedsupply online auction problem, in which an auctioneer has k goods to sell and bidders arrive and depart dynamically. We suppose that agent valuations are drawn independently from some unknown distribution and construct an adaptive auction that is nevertheless value and timestrategyproof. For the k = 1 problem we have a strategyproof variant on the classic secretary problem. We present a 4competitive (ecompetitive) strategyproof online algorithm with respect to offline Vickrey for revenue (efficiency) . We also show (in a model that slightly generalizes the assumption of independent valuations) that no mechanism can be better than 3/2competitive (2competitive) for revenue (efficiency). Our general approach considers a learning phase followed by an accepting phase, and is careful to handle incentive issues for agents that span the two phases. We extend to the k > 1 case, by deriving strategyproof mechanisms which are constantcompetitive for revenue and efficiency. Finally, we present some strategyproof competitive algorithms for the case in which adversary uses a distribution known to the mechanism.
Nearly tight bounds for the continuumarmed bandit problem
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 17
, 2005
"... In the multiarmed bandit problem, an online algorithm must choose from a set of strategies in a sequence of n trials so as to minimize the total cost of the chosen strategies. While nearly tight upper and lower bounds are known in the case when the strategy set is finite, much less is known when th ..."
Abstract

Cited by 69 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In the multiarmed bandit problem, an online algorithm must choose from a set of strategies in a sequence of n trials so as to minimize the total cost of the chosen strategies. While nearly tight upper and lower bounds are known in the case when the strategy set is finite, much less is known when there is an infinite strategy set. Here we consider the case when the set of strategies is a subset of R d, and the cost functions are continuous. In the d = 1 case, we improve on the bestknown upper and lower bounds, closing the gap to a sublogarithmic factor. We also consider the case where d> 1 and the cost functions are convex, adapting a recent online convex optimization algorithm of Zinkevich to the sparser feedback model of the multiarmed bandit problem. 1
NearOptimal Online Auctions
 In Proceedings of the 16th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2005
"... Abstract We consider the online auction problem proposed byBarYossef, Hildrum, and Wu [4] in which an auctioneer is selling identical items to bidders arriving one at atime. We give an auction that achieves a constant factor of the optimal profit less an O(h) additive loss term,where h is the value ..."
Abstract

Cited by 45 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract We consider the online auction problem proposed byBarYossef, Hildrum, and Wu [4] in which an auctioneer is selling identical items to bidders arriving one at atime. We give an auction that achieves a constant factor of the optimal profit less an O(h) additive loss term,where h is the value of the highest bid. Furthermore,this auction does not require foreknowledge of the range of bidders ' valuations. On both counts, this answersopen questions from [4, 5]. We further improve on the results from [5] for the online postedprice problem by reducing their additive loss term from O(h log h log log h)to O(h log log h). Finally, we define the notion of an(offline) attribute auction for modeling the problem of auctioning items to consumers who are not apriori indistinguishable. We apply our online auction solution to achieve good bounds for the attribute auction problemwith 1dimensional attributes.
Regret minimization under partial monitoring
 MATHEMATICS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
, 2004
"... We consider repeated games in which the player, instead of observing the action chosen by the opponent in each game round, receives a feedback generated by the combined choice of the two players. We study Hannan consistent players for this games; that is, randomized playing strategies whose perroun ..."
Abstract

Cited by 33 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We consider repeated games in which the player, instead of observing the action chosen by the opponent in each game round, receives a feedback generated by the combined choice of the two players. We study Hannan consistent players for this games; that is, randomized playing strategies whose perround regret vanishes with probability one as the number n of game rounds goes to infinity. We prove a general lower bound of Ω(n^−1/3) on the convergence rate of the regret, and exhibit a specific strategy that attains this rate on any game for which a Hannan consistent player exists.
Multiparameter mechanism design and sequential posted pricing
 CoRR
"... We study the classic mathematical economics problem of Bayesian optimal mechanism design where a principal aims to optimize expected revenue when allocating resources to selfinterested agents with preferences drawn from a known distribution. In single parameter settings (i.e., where each agent’s pr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 30 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We study the classic mathematical economics problem of Bayesian optimal mechanism design where a principal aims to optimize expected revenue when allocating resources to selfinterested agents with preferences drawn from a known distribution. In single parameter settings (i.e., where each agent’s preference is given by a single private value for being served and zero for not being served) this problem is solved [20]. Unfortunately, these single parameter optimal mechanisms are impractical and rarely employed [1], and furthermore the underlying economic theory fails to generalize to the important, relevant, and unsolved multidimensional setting (i.e., where each agent’s preference is given by multiple values for each of the multiple services available) [25]. In contrast to the theory of optimal mechanisms we develop a theory of sequential posted price mechanisms, where agents in sequence are offered takeitorleaveit prices. We prove that these
Online Decision Problems with Large Strategy Sets
, 2005
"... In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the “strategy set”) whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the combined cost of the algorithm’s choices is compared with that of the single s ..."
Abstract

Cited by 24 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the “strategy set”) whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the combined cost of the algorithm’s choices is compared with that of the single strategy whose combined cost is minimum. Their difference is called regret, and one seeks algorithms which are efficient in that their regret is sublinear in T and polynomial in the problem size. We study an important class of online decision problems called generalized multiarmed bandit problems. In the past such problems have found applications in areas as diverse as statistics, computer science, economic theory, and medical decisionmaking. Most existing algorithms were efficient only in the case of a small (i.e. polynomialsized) strategy set. We extend the theory by supplying nontrivial algorithms and lower bounds for cases in which the strategy set is much larger (exponential or infinite) and
Automated online mechanism design and prophet inequalities
 In Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI
, 2007
"... Recent work on online auctions for digital goods has explored the role of optimal stopping theory — particularly secretary problems — in the design of approximately optimal online mechanisms. This work generally assumes that the size of the market (number of bidders) is known a priori, but that the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 17 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Recent work on online auctions for digital goods has explored the role of optimal stopping theory — particularly secretary problems — in the design of approximately optimal online mechanisms. This work generally assumes that the size of the market (number of bidders) is known a priori, but that the mechanism designer has no knowledge of the distribution of bid values. However, in many realworld applications (such as online ticket sales), the opposite is true: the seller has distributional knowledge of the bid values (e.g., via the history of past transactions in the market), but there is uncertainty about market size. Adopting the perspective of automated mechanism design, introduced by Conitzer and Sandholm, we develop algorithms that compute an optimal, or approximately optimal, online auction mechanism given access to this distributional knowledge. Our main results are twofold. First, we show that when the seller does not know the market size, no constantapproximation to the optimum efficiency or revenue is achievable in the worst case, even under the very strong assumption that bid values are i.i.d. samples from a distribution known to the seller. Second, we show that when the seller has distributional knowledge of the market size as well as the bid values, one can do well in several senses. Perhaps most interestingly, by combining dynamic programming with prophet inequalities (a technique from optimal stopping theory) we are able to design and analyze online mechanisms which are temporally strategyproof (even with respect to arrival and departure times) and approximately efficiency(revenue)maximizing. In exploring the interplay between automated mechanism design and prophet inequalities, we prove new prophet inequalities motivated by the auction setting.
Sequential posted pricing and multiparameter mechanism design
 Proc. of 42 nd ACM STOC
"... We consider the classical mathematical economics problem of Bayesian optimal mechanism design where a principal aims to optimize a given objective when allocating resources to selfinterested agents. In singleparameter settings (where each agent preference is given by a private value for being allo ..."
Abstract

Cited by 16 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We consider the classical mathematical economics problem of Bayesian optimal mechanism design where a principal aims to optimize a given objective when allocating resources to selfinterested agents. In singleparameter settings (where each agent preference is given by a private value for being allocated the resource and zero for not being allocated) this problem is solved [19]. While this economic solution is tractable whenever the noneconomic optimization problem is tractable, it is complicated enough that it is rarely employed. Moreover, the techniques do not seem to generalize to multiparameter settings. Our first result is that for general product distributions on agent preferences and resource allocation problems that satisfy matroid properties (e.g., multiunit auctions, matchings, spanning trees), sequential posted price mechanisms, where agents are approached inturn and offered a precomputed takeitorleaveit offer, are at most a 4approximation to the optimal singleround mechanism. Furthermore, a suitable sequence of prices can be effectively computed by sampling the agents ’ distributional preferences. Notably, the analysis of this sequential posted price mechanism can be extended to give approximation mechanisms for the unsolved multiparameter setting. In stark contrast to the singleparameter setting, in multiparameter settings there is no general description or tractable implementation of optimal mechanisms. For decades, this unanswered issue has been widely considered one of the most important in the economic theory on mechanism design. We focus on