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23
A General Probabilistic Framework for Worst Case Timing Analysis
, 2002
"... The traditional approach to worstcase statictiming analysis is becoming unacceptably conservative due to an everincreasing number of circuit and process effects. We propose a fundamentally different framework that aims to significantly improve the accuracy of timing predictions through fully prob ..."
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Cited by 73 (4 self)
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The traditional approach to worstcase statictiming analysis is becoming unacceptably conservative due to an everincreasing number of circuit and process effects. We propose a fundamentally different framework that aims to significantly improve the accuracy of timing predictions through fully probabilistic analysis of gate and path delays. We describe a bottomup approach for the construction of joint probability density function of path delays, and present novel analytical and algorithmic methods for finding the full distribution of the maximum of a random path delay space with arbitrary path correlations.
FalsePathAware Statistical Timing Analysis and Efficient Path Selection for Delay Testing and Timing Validation
, 2002
"... We propose a falsepathaware statistical timing analysis framework. In our framework, cell as well as interconnect delays are assumed to be correlated random variables. Our tool can characterize statistical circuit delay distribution for the entire circuit and produce a set of true critical paths. ..."
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Cited by 45 (7 self)
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We propose a falsepathaware statistical timing analysis framework. In our framework, cell as well as interconnect delays are assumed to be correlated random variables. Our tool can characterize statistical circuit delay distribution for the entire circuit and produce a set of true critical paths.
Fast statistical timing analysis by probabilistic event propagation
 Proc. 2001 Design Automation Conference
, 2001
"... We propose a new statistical timing analysis algorithm, which produces arrivaltime random variables for all internal signals and primary outputs for cellbased designs with all cell delays modeled as random variables. Our algorithm propagates probabilistic timing events through the circuit and obta ..."
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Cited by 42 (1 self)
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We propose a new statistical timing analysis algorithm, which produces arrivaltime random variables for all internal signals and primary outputs for cellbased designs with all cell delays modeled as random variables. Our algorithm propagates probabilistic timing events through the circuit and obtains final probabilistic events (distributions) at all nodes. The new algorithm is deterministic and flexible in controlling run time and accuracy. However, the algorithm has exponential time complexity for circuits with reconvergent fanouts. In order to solve this problem, we further propose a fast approximate algorithm. Experiments show that this approximate algorithm speeds up the statistical timing analysis by at least an order of magnitude and produces results with small errors when compared with Monte Carlo methods. 1.
Digital Circuit Optimization via Geometric Programming
 Operations Research
, 2005
"... informs ® doi 10.1287/opre.1050.0254 © 2005 INFORMS This paper concerns a method for digital circuit optimization based on formulating the problem as a geometric program (GP) or generalized geometric program (GGP), which can be transformed to a convex optimization problem and then very efficiently s ..."
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Cited by 27 (7 self)
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informs ® doi 10.1287/opre.1050.0254 © 2005 INFORMS This paper concerns a method for digital circuit optimization based on formulating the problem as a geometric program (GP) or generalized geometric program (GGP), which can be transformed to a convex optimization problem and then very efficiently solved. We start with a basic gate scaling problem, with delay modeled as a simple resistorcapacitor (RC) time constant, and then add various layers of complexity and modeling accuracy, such as accounting for differing signal fall and rise times, and the effects of signal transition times. We then consider more complex formulations such as robust design over corners, multimode design, statistical design, and problems in which threshold and power supply voltage are also variables to be chosen. Finally, we look at the detailed design of gates and interconnect wires, again using a formulation that is compatible with GP or GGP.
A heuristic for optimizing stochastic activity networks with applications to statistical digital circuit sizing
 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and SystemsI
, 2004
"... A deterministic activity network (DAN) is a collection of activities, each with some duration, along with a set of precedence constraints, which specify that activities begin only when certain others have finished. One critical performance measure for an activity network is its makespan, which is th ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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A deterministic activity network (DAN) is a collection of activities, each with some duration, along with a set of precedence constraints, which specify that activities begin only when certain others have finished. One critical performance measure for an activity network is its makespan, which is the minimum time required to complete all activities. In a stochastic activity network (SAN), the durations of the activities and the makespan are random variables. The analysis of SANs is quite involved, but can be carried out numerically by Monte Carlo analysis. This paper concerns the optimization of a SAN, i.e., the choice of some design variables that affect the probability distributions of the activity durations. We concentrate on the problem of minimizing a quantile (e.g., 95%) of the makespan, subject to constraints on the variables. This problem has many applications, ranging from project management to digital integrated circuit (IC) sizing (the latter being our motivation). While there are effective methods for optimizing DANs, the SAN optimization problem is much more difficult; the few existing methods cannot handle largescale problems.
A Performance Optimization Method by Gate Sizing Using Statistical Static Timing Analysis
 in Proc. of ACM International Symposium on Physical Design
, 2000
"... We propose a gate resizing method for delay and power optimization that is based on statistical static timing analysis. Our method focuses on the component of timing uncertainties due to local random fluctuation. Utilizing our method, overdesign of a circuit can be eliminated and highperforman ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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We propose a gate resizing method for delay and power optimization that is based on statistical static timing analysis. Our method focuses on the component of timing uncertainties due to local random fluctuation. Utilizing our method, overdesign of a circuit can be eliminated and highperformance and highreliability LSI design can be realized. The effectiveness of our method is examined by 6 benchmark circuits. We verify that our method can reduce delay consideration of fluctuation.
A Statistical Gatedelay Model Considering Intragate Variability
 in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Aided Design
, 2003
"... This paper proposes a model for calculating statistical gatedelay variation caused by intrachip and interchip variability. As the variation of individual gate delays directly influences the circuitdelay variation, it is important to characterize each gatedelay variation accurately. Furthermore, ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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This paper proposes a model for calculating statistical gatedelay variation caused by intrachip and interchip variability. As the variation of individual gate delays directly influences the circuitdelay variation, it is important to characterize each gatedelay variation accurately. Furthermore, as every transistor in a gate affects the transient characteristics of the gate, it is also necessary to consider the intragate variability in the model of gatedelay variation. This effect is not captured in existing statistical delay analyses. The proposed model considers the intragate variability through the introduction of sensitivity constants. The accuracy of the model is evaluated, and some simulation results for circuit delay variation are presented. 1.
Intervalbased Robust Statistical Techniques for Nonnegative Convex Functions, with Application to Timing Analysis of Computer Chips
 Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Reliable Engineering Computing
, 2006
"... In chip design, one of the main objectives is to decrease its clock cycle. On the design stage, this time is usually estimated by using worstcase (interval) techniques, in which we only use the bounds on the parameters that lead to delays. This analysis does not take into account that the probabili ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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In chip design, one of the main objectives is to decrease its clock cycle. On the design stage, this time is usually estimated by using worstcase (interval) techniques, in which we only use the bounds on the parameters that lead to delays. This analysis does not take into account that the probability of the worstcase values is usually very small; thus, the resulting estimates are overconservative, leading to unnecessary overdesign and underperformance of circuits. If we knew the exact probability distributions of the corresponding parameters, then we could use MonteCarlo simulations (or the corresponding analytical techniques) to get the desired estimates. In practice, however, we only have partial information about the corresponding distributions, and we want to produce estimates that are valid for all distributions which are consistent with this information.
PolynomialTime Techniques For Approximate Timing Analysis Of Asynchronous Systems
, 1998
"... As designers strive to build systems on chips with ever diminishing device sizes, and as clock speeds of gigahertz and above are being contemplated, the limitations of synchronous circuits are beginning to surface. Consequently, there has been a renewed interest in asyn chronous design techniques t ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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As designers strive to build systems on chips with ever diminishing device sizes, and as clock speeds of gigahertz and above are being contemplated, the limitations of synchronous circuits are beginning to surface. Consequently, there has been a renewed interest in asyn chronous design techniques that use judicious timing assumptions to obtain fast circuits with low hardware overhead. However, the correct operation of these circuits depend on certain timing constraints being satisfied in the actual implementation. Since statistical variations in manufacturing conditions and operating conditions result in uncertainties in component delays in a chip, it is important to analyze asynchronous systems with uncer tain component delays to check for timing constraint violations and to determine sufficient conditions for their correct operation. Unfortunately, several timing analysis problems are computationally intractable when component delays are uncertain but bounded. This the sis presents polynomialtime techniques for approximate timing analysis of asynchronous systems with bounded component delays. Although the algorithms are conservative in the worst case, experiments indicate that they are fairly accurate in practice.
Delay Test Quality Evaluation using Bounded Gate Delays
 in Proc. 25th IEEE VLSI Test Symp
, 2007
"... Abstract: Conventionally, path delay tests are derived in a delayindependent manner, which causes most faults to be robustly untestable. Many nonrobust tests are invalidated by hazards caused primarily due to nonzero delays of offpath circuit elements. Thus, nonrobust tests are of limited value ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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Abstract: Conventionally, path delay tests are derived in a delayindependent manner, which causes most faults to be robustly untestable. Many nonrobust tests are invalidated by hazards caused primarily due to nonzero delays of offpath circuit elements. Thus, nonrobust tests are of limited value when process variations change gate delays. We propose a bounded gate delay model for test quality evaluation and give a novel simulation algorithm that is less pessimistic than previous approaches. The key idea is that certain timecorrelations among the multiple transitions at the inputs of a gate cannot cause hazard at its output. We maintain “ambiguity lists ” for gates. These are propagated with events, similar to fault lists in a traditional concurrent fault simulation. They are used to suppress erroneous unknown states. Experimental results for ISCAS benchmarks with gate delay variation of ±14 % show a miscorrelation of critical path delay as much as 20%. 1