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Implementing the MetaTheory of Deductive Systems
 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automated Deduction
, 1992
"... . We exhibit a methodology for formulating and verifying metatheorems about deductive systems in the Elf language, an implementation of the LF Logical Framework with an operational semantics in the spirit of logic programming. It is based on the mechanical verification of properties of transformatio ..."
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Cited by 32 (9 self)
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. We exhibit a methodology for formulating and verifying metatheorems about deductive systems in the Elf language, an implementation of the LF Logical Framework with an operational semantics in the spirit of logic programming. It is based on the mechanical verification of properties of transformations between deductions, which relies on type reconstruction and schemachecking. The latter is justified by induction principles for closed LF objects, which can be constructed over a given signature. We illustrate our technique through several examples, the most extensive of which is an interpretation of classical logic in minimal logic through a continuationpassingstyle transformation on proofs. 1 Introduction Formal deductive systems have become an important tool in computer science. They are used to specify logics, type systems, operational semantics and other aspects of languages. The role of such specifications is threefold. Firstly, inference rules serve as a highlevel notation w...
An Empirical Study of the Runtime Behavior of HigherOrder Logic Programs
 University of Pennsylvania. Available as
, 1992
"... this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. ..."
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Cited by 28 (7 self)
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this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.
Tabled HigherOrder Logic Programming
 In 20th International Conference on Automated Deduction
, 2003
"... Elf is a general metalanguage for the specification and implementation of logical systems in the style of the logical framework LF. Based on a logic programming interpretation, it supports executing logical systems and reasoning with and about them, thereby reducing the effort required for each ..."
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Cited by 26 (11 self)
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Elf is a general metalanguage for the specification and implementation of logical systems in the style of the logical framework LF. Based on a logic programming interpretation, it supports executing logical systems and reasoning with and about them, thereby reducing the effort required for each particular logical system. The traditional logic programming paradigm is extended by replacing firstorder terms with dependently typed terms and allowing implication and universal quantification in the bodies of clauses. These higherorder features allow us to model concisely and elegantly conditions on variables and the discharge of assumptions which are prevalent in many logical systems. However, many specifications are not executable under the traditional logic programming semantics and performance may be hampered by redundant computation. To address these problems, I propose a tabled higherorder logic programming interpretation for Elf. Some redundant computation is eliminated by memoizing subcomputation and reusing its result later. If we do not distinguish different proofs for a property, then search based on tabled logic programming is complete and terminates for programs with bounded recursion. In this proposal, I present a prooftheoretical characterization for tabled higherorder logic programming. It is the basis of the implemented prototype for tabled logic programming interpreter for Elf. Preliminary experiments indicate that many more logical specifications are executable under the tabled semantics. In addition, tabled computation leads to more efficient execution of programs. The goal of the thesis is to demonstrate that tabled logic programming allows us to efficiently automate reasoning with and about logical systems in the logical f...
Programming with proofs and explicit contexts
 In Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming, 2008. François Pottier and Nadji
"... This paper explores a new point in the design space of functional programming: functional programming with dependentlytyped higherorder data structures described in the logical framework LF. This allows us to program with proofs as higherorder data. We present a decidable bidirectional type syste ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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This paper explores a new point in the design space of functional programming: functional programming with dependentlytyped higherorder data structures described in the logical framework LF. This allows us to program with proofs as higherorder data. We present a decidable bidirectional type system that distinguishes between dependentlytyped data and computations. To support reasoning about open data, our foundation makes contexts explicit. This provides us with a concise characterization of open data, which is crucial to elegantly describe proofs. In addition, we present an operational semantics for this language based on higherorder pattern matching for dependently typed objects. Based on this development, we prove progress and preservation.
Algorithms for Equality and Unification in the Presence of Notational Definitions
 Types for Proofs and Programs
, 1998
"... this paper we investigate the interaction of notational definitions with algorithms for testing equality and unification. We propose a syntactic criterion on definitions which avoids their expansion in many cases without losing soundness or completeness with respect to fi fficonversion. Our setting ..."
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Cited by 19 (11 self)
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this paper we investigate the interaction of notational definitions with algorithms for testing equality and unification. We propose a syntactic criterion on definitions which avoids their expansion in many cases without losing soundness or completeness with respect to fi fficonversion. Our setting is the dependently typed calculus [HHP93], but, with minor modifications, our results should apply to richer type theories and logics. The question when definitions need to be expanded is surprisingly subtle and of great practical importance. Most algorithms for equality and unification rely on decomposing a problem
On the theory of structural subtyping
, 2003
"... We show that the firstorder theory of structural subtyping of nonrecursive types is decidable. Let Σ be a language consisting of function symbols (representing type constructors) and C a decidable structure in the relational language L containing a binary relation ≤. C represents primitive types; ..."
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Cited by 18 (8 self)
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We show that the firstorder theory of structural subtyping of nonrecursive types is decidable. Let Σ be a language consisting of function symbols (representing type constructors) and C a decidable structure in the relational language L containing a binary relation ≤. C represents primitive types; ≤ represents a subtype ordering. We introduce the notion of Σtermpower of C, which generalizes the structure arising in structural subtyping. The domain of the Σtermpower of C is the set of Σterms over the set of elements of C. We show that the decidability of the firstorder theory of C implies the decidability of the firstorder theory of the Σtermpower of C. This result implies the decidability of the firstorder theory of structural subtyping of nonrecursive types.
HigherOrder Substitution Tree Indexing
 19th International Conference on Logic Programming
, 2003
"... We present a higherorder term indexing strategy based on substitution trees. The strategy is based in linear higherorder patterns where computationally expensive parts are delayed. Insertion of terms into the index is based on computing the most specific linear generalization of two linear hig ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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We present a higherorder term indexing strategy based on substitution trees. The strategy is based in linear higherorder patterns where computationally expensive parts are delayed. Insertion of terms into the index is based on computing the most specific linear generalization of two linear higherorder patterns. Retrieving terms is based on matching two linear higherorder patterns. This indexing structure is implemented as part of the Twelf system to speedup the execution of the tabled higherlogic programming interpreter. Experimental results show substantial performance improvements, between 100% and over 800%.
Optimizing HigherOrder Pattern Unification
 19th International Conference on Automated Deduction
, 2003
"... We present an abstract view of existential variables in a dependently typed lambdacalculus based on modal type theory. This allows us to justify optimizations to pattern unification such as linearization, which eliminates many unnecessary occurschecks. The presented modal framework explains a ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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We present an abstract view of existential variables in a dependently typed lambdacalculus based on modal type theory. This allows us to justify optimizations to pattern unification such as linearization, which eliminates many unnecessary occurschecks. The presented modal framework explains a number of features of the current implementation of higherorder unification in Twelf and provides insight into several optimizations. Experimental results demonstrate significant performance improvement in many example applications of Twelf, including those in the area of proofcarrying code.
Elimination of Negation in a Logical Framework
, 2000
"... Logical frameworks with a logic programming interpretation such as hereditary Harrop formulae (HHF) [15] cannot express directly negative information, although negation is a useful specification tool. Since negationasfailure does not fit well in a logical framework, especially one endowed with ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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Logical frameworks with a logic programming interpretation such as hereditary Harrop formulae (HHF) [15] cannot express directly negative information, although negation is a useful specification tool. Since negationasfailure does not fit well in a logical framework, especially one endowed with hypothetical and parametric judgements, we adapt the idea of elimination of negation introduced in [21] for Horn logic to a fragment of higherorder HHF. This entails finding a middle ground between the Closed World Assumption usually associated with negation and the Open World Assumption typical of logical frameworks; the main technical idea is to isolate a set of programs where static and dynamic clauses do not overlap.
Practical higherorder pattern unification with onthefly raising
 In ICLP 2005: 21st International Logic Programming Conference, volume 3668 of LNCS
, 2005
"... Abstract. Higherorder pattern unification problems arise often in computations carried out within systems such as Twelf, λProlog and Isabelle. An important characteristic of such problems is that they are given by equations appearing under a prefix of alternating universal and existential quantifie ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Abstract. Higherorder pattern unification problems arise often in computations carried out within systems such as Twelf, λProlog and Isabelle. An important characteristic of such problems is that they are given by equations appearing under a prefix of alternating universal and existential quantifiers. Existing algorithms for solving these problems assume that such prefixes are simplified to a ∀∃ ∀ form by an a priori application of a transformation known as raising. There are drawbacks to this approach. Mixed quantifier prefixes typically manifest themselves in the course of computation, thereby requiring a dynamic form of preprocessing that is difficult to support in lowlevel implementations. Moreover, raising may be redundant in many cases and its effect may have to be undone by a subsequent pruning transformation. We propose a method to overcome these difficulties. In particular, a unification algorithm is described that proceeds by recursively descending through the structures of terms, performing raising and other transformations onthefly and only as needed. This algorithm also exploits an explicit substitution notation for lambda terms. 1