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25
A Clusterbased Approach for Routing in Dynamic Networks
 ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review
, 1997
"... The design and analysis of routing protocols is an important issue in dynamic networks such as packet radio and adhoc wireless networks. Most conventional protocols exhibit their least desirable behavior for highly dynamic interconnection topologies. We propose a new methodology for routing and top ..."
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Cited by 135 (3 self)
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The design and analysis of routing protocols is an important issue in dynamic networks such as packet radio and adhoc wireless networks. Most conventional protocols exhibit their least desirable behavior for highly dynamic interconnection topologies. We propose a new methodology for routing and topology information maintenance in dynamic networks. The basic idea behind the protocol is to divide the graph into a number of overlapping clusters. A change in the network topology corresponds to a change in cluster membership. We present algorithms for creation of clusters, as well as algorithms to maintain them in the presence of various network events. Compared to existing and conventional routing protocols, the proposed clusterbased approach incurs lower overhead during topology updates and also has quicker reconvergence. The effectiveness of this approach also lies in the fact that existing routing protocols can be directly applied to the network  replacing the nodes by clusters. 1 ...
Hierarchical Routing for Large Networks  Performance evaluation and optimization
, 1977
"... ... This paper deals with the specification, analysis and evaluation of some hierarchical routing procedures which are effective for large storeandforward packetswitched computer networks. The procedures studied ate an extension of present techniques and rely on a hierarchical clustering of the n ..."
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Cited by 101 (0 self)
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... This paper deals with the specification, analysis and evaluation of some hierarchical routing procedures which are effective for large storeandforward packetswitched computer networks. The procedures studied ate an extension of present techniques and rely on a hierarchical clustering of the network nodes. In particular, optimal clustering structures are determined so as to minimize the length of the routing tables required. A price for reducing the table length is the increase in the average message path length in the network. Bounds are derived to evaluate the maximum increase in path length for a given table length. From this we obtain our key result, namely, that in the limit of a very large network, enormous table reduction may be achieved with essentially no increase in network path length.
A responsive distributed routing algorithm for computer networks
 Communications, IEEE Transactions on
, 1982
"... AbsrrucrA new distributed algorithm is presented for dynamically determining weighted shortest paths used for message routing in computer networks. The major features of the algorithm are that the paths.defined do not form transient loops when weights change and the number of steps required to find ..."
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Cited by 65 (1 self)
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AbsrrucrA new distributed algorithm is presented for dynamically determining weighted shortest paths used for message routing in computer networks. The major features of the algorithm are that the paths.defined do not form transient loops when weights change and the number of steps required to find new shortest paths when network links fail is less than for previous algorithms. Specifically, the worst case recovery time is proportional to the largest number of hops h in any of the weighted shortest paths. For previous loopfree distributed algorithms this recovery time is proportional to h2. I.
Distributed, Scalable Routing Based on Vectors of Link States
, 1995
"... Link vector algorithms (LVA) are introduced for the distributed maintenance of routing information in large networks and internets. According to an LVA, each router maintains a subset of the topology that corresponds to adjacent links and those links used by its neighbor routers in their preferred p ..."
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Cited by 47 (19 self)
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Link vector algorithms (LVA) are introduced for the distributed maintenance of routing information in large networks and internets. According to an LVA, each router maintains a subset of the topology that corresponds to adjacent links and those links used by its neighbor routers in their preferred paths to known destinations. Based on that subset of topology information, the router derives its own preferred paths and communicates the corresponding linkstate information to its neighbors. An update message contains a vector of updates; each such update specifies a link and its parameters. LVAs can be used for different types of routing. The correctness of LVAs is verified for arbitrary types of routing when correct and deterministic algorithms are used to select preferred paths at each router and each router is able to differentiate old updates from new. LVAs are shown to have better performance than the ideal linkstate algorithm based on flooding and the distributed BellmanFord algor...
Another Adaptive Distributed Shortest Path Algorithm
 IEEE Transactions on Communications
, 1991
"... We give a distributed algorithm to compute shortest paths in a network with changing topology. It does not suffer from the routing table looping behavior associated with the FordBellman distributed shortest path algorithm although it uses truly distributed processing. Its time and message complexiti ..."
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Cited by 41 (0 self)
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We give a distributed algorithm to compute shortest paths in a network with changing topology. It does not suffer from the routing table looping behavior associated with the FordBellman distributed shortest path algorithm although it uses truly distributed processing. Its time and message complexities are evaluated. Pierre Humblet is with the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139. This research was supported in part by Codex Corporation and in part by the Army Research Office under Grant No. DAAL0386K0171. 2 1) INTRODUCTION One of the oldest and best known problems in the field of distributed algorithms is to compute shortest paths between nodes in a network. This problem arises in the following context. We have a network of links and nodes (processors). Each link (I,J) is characterized by a direction dependent length LEN(I,J) that can change with time and can only be observed at node I. The nodes execute a distr...
Hierarchical Routing Using Link Vectors
 IEEE INFOCOM'98
, 1998
"... An areabased linkvector algorithm (ALVA) is introduced for the distributed maintenance of routing information in very large internetworks. According to ALVA, destinations in an internetwork are aggregated in areas in multiple levels of hierarchy. Routers maintain a database that contains a subset ..."
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Cited by 26 (1 self)
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An areabased linkvector algorithm (ALVA) is introduced for the distributed maintenance of routing information in very large internetworks. According to ALVA, destinations in an internetwork are aggregated in areas in multiple levels of hierarchy. Routers maintain a database that contains a subset of the topology at each level of the hierarchy. This subset corresponds to those links used in preferred paths to reach destinations (nodes inside the same immediate area or remote areas). ALVA is the first hierarchical routing algorithm based on linkstate information that does not require complete topology information at each level in the hierarchy. The correctness of ALVA is verified. Simulation results are presented showing that ALVA outperformes OSPF in terms of communication and storage overhead. I. INTRODUCTION In the past, most work in distributed routing has proceeded in two directions: protocols based on distancevector algorithms (DVA) and protocols based on linkstate algorithm...
Distributed, Scalable Routing Based on LinkState Vectors
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 1994
"... A new family of routing algorithms for the distributed maintenance of routing information in large networks and internets is introduced. This family is called link vector algorithms (LVA), and is based on the selective diffusion of linkstate information based on the distributed computation of prefe ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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A new family of routing algorithms for the distributed maintenance of routing information in large networks and internets is introduced. This family is called link vector algorithms (LVA), and is based on the selective diffusion of linkstate information based on the distributed computation of preferred paths, rather than on the flooding of complete linkstate information to all routers. According to LVA, each router maintains a subset of the topology that corresponds to the links used by its neighbor routers in their preferred paths to known destinations. Based on that subset of topology information, the router derives its own preferred paths and communicates the corresponding linkstate information to its neighbors. An update message contains a vector of updates; each such update specifies a link and its parameters. LVAs can be used for different types of routing. The correctness of LVA is verified for arbitrary types of routing when correct and deterministic algorithms are used to s...
Eigrp  A Fast Routing Protocol Based On Distance Vectors
 Proc. Networld/Interop 94
, 1994
"... Early routing protocols were based on distance vectors; they were very simple and easy to implement but had the severe drawbacks of counting to infinity and routing loops. These problems were reduced using such techniques as split horizon and holddowns; however, for these techniques to work in pr ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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Early routing protocols were based on distance vectors; they were very simple and easy to implement but had the severe drawbacks of counting to infinity and routing loops. These problems were reduced using such techniques as split horizon and holddowns; however, for these techniques to work in practice, long convergence times are introduced. Routing protocols based on link states have been implemented to address the problem of slow convergence in distancevector protocols, but they add complexity in configuration and troubleshooting. We present a new distancevector protocol that converges as quickly as current linkstate protocols, while maintaining loop freedom at every instant. The protocol is based on three main elements: a transport algorithm that supports the reliable exchange of messages among routers, the diffusing update algorithm, which computes shortest paths distributedly, and modules that permit the operation of the new routing protocol in a multiprotocol environment.
LoopFree Internet Routing Using Hierarchical Routing Trees
, 1997
"... We present a new hierarchical routing algorithm that combines the loopfree pathfinding algorithm (LPA) with the areabased hierarchical routing scheme first proposed by McQuillan for distancevector algorithms. The new algorithm, which we call the Hierarchical Information Pathbased Routing (HIPR) ..."
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Cited by 18 (4 self)
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We present a new hierarchical routing algorithm that combines the loopfree pathfinding algorithm (LPA) with the areabased hierarchical routing scheme first proposed by McQuillan for distancevector algorithms. The new algorithm, which we call the Hierarchical Information Pathbased Routing (HIPR) algorithm, accommodates an arbitrary number of aggregation levels and can be viewed as a distributed version of Dijkstra's algorithm running over a hierarchical graph. HIPR is verified to be loopfree and correct. Simulations are used to show that HIPR is much more efficient than OSPF in terms of speed, communication and processing overhead required to converge to correct routing tables. HIPR constitutes the basis for future Internet routing protocols that are as simple as RIPv2, but with no looping and better performance than protocols based on linkstates. 1. Introduction Routing information maintained at each router has to be updated frequently to adapt to network dynamics. In a flat r...
MessageEfficient SelfOrganization of Wireless Sensor Networks
 In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference. (2003
, 2003
"... Distributed selforganization algorithms for wireless sensor (and actuator) networks must have low message complexity from energy and bandwidth considerations. In this paper, we present a novel approach for messageefficient clustering, in which nodes allocate local growth budgets to neighbors. We i ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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Distributed selforganization algorithms for wireless sensor (and actuator) networks must have low message complexity from energy and bandwidth considerations. In this paper, we present a novel approach for messageefficient clustering, in which nodes allocate local growth budgets to neighbors. We introduce two algorithms that make use of this approach. Unlike the expanding ring approach [10], our algorithms do not involve the initiator in each round, and do not violate the specified upper bound on the cluster size at any time. We derive analytical performance bounds of our algorithms and also provide performance results from simulations. The algorithms produce clusters of bounded size and low diameter, using significantly fewer messages than the expanding ring approach.