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Reducing the Space Requirement of Suffix Trees
 Software – Practice and Experience
, 1999
"... We show that suffix trees store various kinds of redundant information. We exploit these redundancies to obtain more space efficient representations. The most space efficient of our representations requires 20 bytes per input character in the worst case, and 10.1 bytes per input character on average ..."
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Cited by 118 (10 self)
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We show that suffix trees store various kinds of redundant information. We exploit these redundancies to obtain more space efficient representations. The most space efficient of our representations requires 20 bytes per input character in the worst case, and 10.1 bytes per input character on average for a collection of 42 files of different type. This is an advantage of more than 8 bytes per input character over previous work. Our representations can be constructed without extra space, and as fast as previous representations. The asymptotic running times of suffix tree applications are retained. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS: data structures; suffix trees; implementation techniques; space reduction
Fast and Intuitive Clustering of Web Documents
 In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 1997
"... Conventional document retrieval systems (e.g., Alta Vista) return long lists of ranked documents in response to user queries. Recently, document clustering has been put forth as an alternative method of organizing retrieval results (Cutting et al. 1992). A person browsing the clusters can discover ..."
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Cited by 101 (2 self)
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Conventional document retrieval systems (e.g., Alta Vista) return long lists of ranked documents in response to user queries. Recently, document clustering has been put forth as an alternative method of organizing retrieval results (Cutting et al. 1992). A person browsing the clusters can discover patterns that could be overlooked in the traditional presentation. This paper describes two novel clustering methods that intersect the documents in a cluster to determine the set of words (or phrases) shared by all the documents in the cluster. We report on experiments that evaluate these intersectionbased clustering methods on collections of snippets returned from Web search engines. First, we show that wordintersection clustering produces superior clusters and does so faster than standard techniques. Second, we show that our O(n log n) time phraseintersection clustering method produces comparable clusters and does so more than two orders of magnitude faster than all methods tested. I...
Space efficient linear time construction of suffix arrays
 Journal of Discrete Algorithms
, 2003
"... Abstract. We present a linear time algorithm to sort all the suffixes of a string over a large alphabet of integers. The sorted order of suffixes of a string is also called suffix array, a data structure introduced by Manber and Myers that has numerous applications in pattern matching, string proces ..."
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Cited by 73 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present a linear time algorithm to sort all the suffixes of a string over a large alphabet of integers. The sorted order of suffixes of a string is also called suffix array, a data structure introduced by Manber and Myers that has numerous applications in pattern matching, string processing, and computational biology. Though the suffix tree of a string can be constructed in linear time and the sorted order of suffixes derived from it, a direct algorithm for suffix sorting is of great interest due to the space requirements of suffix trees. Our result improves upon the best known direct algorithm for suffix sorting, which takes O(n log n) time. We also show how to construct suffix trees in linear time from our suffix sorting result. Apart from being simple and applicable for alphabets not necessarily of fixed size, this method of constructing suffix trees is more space efficient. 1
LempelZiv parsing and sublinearsize index structures for string matching (Extended Abstract)
 Proc. 3rd South American Workshop on String Processing (WSP'96
, 1996
"... String matching over a long text can be significantly speeded up with an index structure formed by preprocessing the text. For very long texts, the size of such an index can be a problem. This paper presents the first sublinearsize index structure. The new structure is based on LempelZiv parsing ..."
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Cited by 48 (1 self)
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String matching over a long text can be significantly speeded up with an index structure formed by preprocessing the text. For very long texts, the size of such an index can be a problem. This paper presents the first sublinearsize index structure. The new structure is based on LempelZiv parsing of the text and has size linear in N, the size of the LempelZiv parse. For a text of length n, N = O(n = log n) and can be still smaller if the text is compressible. With the new index structure, all occurrences of a pattern string of length m can be found in time O(m 2
Efficient Implementation of Lazy Suffix Trees
, 1999
"... We present an efficient implementation of a writeonly topdown construction for suffix trees. Our implementation is based on a new, spaceefficient representation of suffix trees that requires only 12 bytes per input character in the worst case, and 8.5 bytes per input character on average for a co ..."
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Cited by 38 (5 self)
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We present an efficient implementation of a writeonly topdown construction for suffix trees. Our implementation is based on a new, spaceefficient representation of suffix trees that requires only 12 bytes per input character in the worst case, and 8.5 bytes per input character on average for a collection of files of different type. We show how to efficiently implement the lazy evaluation of suffix trees such that a subtree is evaluated only when it is traversed for the first time. Our experiments show that for the problem of searching many exact patterns in a fixed input string, the lazy topdown construction is often faster and more space efficient than other methods. Copyright c ○ 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS: string matching; suffix tree; spaceefficient implementation; lazy evaluation
Sparse Suffix Trees
 In Proc. 2nd Annual International Conference on Computing and Combinatorics (COCOON), LNCS v. 1090
, 1996
"... . A sparse suffix tree is a suffix tree that represents only a subset of the suffixes of the text. This is in contrast to the standard suffix tree that represents all suffixes. By selecting a small enough subset, a sparse suffix tree can be made to fit the available storage, unfortunately at the cos ..."
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Cited by 30 (1 self)
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. A sparse suffix tree is a suffix tree that represents only a subset of the suffixes of the text. This is in contrast to the standard suffix tree that represents all suffixes. By selecting a small enough subset, a sparse suffix tree can be made to fit the available storage, unfortunately at the cost of increased search times. The idea of sparse suffix trees goes back to PATRICIA tries. Evenly spaced sparse suffix trees represent every kth suffix of the text. In the paper, we give general construction and search algorithms for evenly spaced sparse suffix trees, and present their run time analysis, both in the worst and in the average case. The algorithms are further improved by using socalled dual suffix trees. 1 Introduction Finding an index for a long text that makes fast string matching possible is one of the very central problems of text processing systems. Suffix trees offer a theoretically timeoptimal solution. A suffix tree is a trielike data structure that represents all su...
Musical Information Retrieval Using Musical Parameters
 In Proceedings of the 1998 International Computer Music Conference
, 1998
"... . The application domain for automatical retrieval of melodic excerpts in musical collections is wide; e.g. it would facilitate the work of music researcher trying to find specific features in music. In this paper we consider several parts of the retrieving process. We present our representation for ..."
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Cited by 28 (8 self)
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. The application domain for automatical retrieval of melodic excerpts in musical collections is wide; e.g. it would facilitate the work of music researcher trying to find specific features in music. In this paper we consider several parts of the retrieving process. We present our representation for musical data. This inner representation is converted and established from MIDIfiles. For the matching we use a particular encoding (two dimensional relative code), which is formed out of the inner representation. This encoding can be interpreted differently depending on the way the key is given. Furthermore, in the matching phase we use an efficient indexing structure, wellknown in string pattern matching, called suffixtrie. 1 Introduction In the earlier researches concerning musical data representation, researchers seemed to be rather sensible to the delicate details of different styles of music. One example of such a meticulous approach is Leo Plenckers encoding system for Spanish med...
Database indexing for large DNA and protein sequence collections
, 2002
"... Our aim is to develop new database technologies for the approximate matching of unstructured string data using indexes. We explore the potential of the suffix tree data structure in this context. We present a new method of building suffix trees, allowing us to build trees in excess of RAM size, whic ..."
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Cited by 22 (3 self)
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Our aim is to develop new database technologies for the approximate matching of unstructured string data using indexes. We explore the potential of the suffix tree data structure in this context. We present a new method of building suffix trees, allowing us to build trees in excess of RAM size, which has hitherto not been possible. We show that this method performs in practice as well as the O(n) method of Ukkonen [70]. Using this method we build indexes for 200Mb of protein and 300Mbp of DNA, whose diskimage exceeds the available RAM. We show experimentally that suffix trees can be effectively used in approximate string matching with biological data. For a range of query lengths and error bounds the suffix tree reduces the size of the unoptimised O(mn) dynamic programming calculation required in the evaluation of string similarity, and the gain from indexing increases with index size. In the indexes we built this reduction is significant, and less than 0.3% of the expected matrix is evaluated. We detail the requirements for further database and algorithmic research to support efficient use of large suffix indexes in biological applications.
Advantages of backward searching — efficient secondary memory and distributed implementation of compressed suffix arrays
, 2004
"... Abstract. One of the most relevant succinct suffix array proposals in the literature is the Compressed Suffix Array (CSA) of Sadakane [ISAAC 2000]. The CSA needs n(H0 + O(log log σ)) bits of space, where n is the text size, σ is the alphabet size, and H0 the zeroorder entropy of the text. The numbe ..."
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Cited by 17 (11 self)
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Abstract. One of the most relevant succinct suffix array proposals in the literature is the Compressed Suffix Array (CSA) of Sadakane [ISAAC 2000]. The CSA needs n(H0 + O(log log σ)) bits of space, where n is the text size, σ is the alphabet size, and H0 the zeroorder entropy of the text. The number of occurrences of a pattern of length m can be computed in O(m log n) time. Most notably, the CSA does not need the text separately available to operate. The CSA simulates a binary search over the suffix array, where the query is compared against text substrings. These are extracted from the same CSA by following irregular access patterns over the structure. Sadakane [SODA 2002] has proposed using backward searching on the CSA in similar fashion as the FMindex of Ferragina and Manzini [FOCS 2000]. He has shown that the CSA can be searched in O(m) time whenever σ = O(polylog(n)). In this paper we consider some other consequences of backward searching applied to CSA. The most remarkable one is that we do not need, unlike all previous proposals, any complicated sublinear structures based on the fourRussians technique (such as constant time rank and select queries on bit arrays). We show that sampling and compression are enough to achieve O(m log n) query time using less space than the original structure. It is also possible to trade structure space for search time. Furthermore, the regular access pattern of backward searching permits an efficient secondary memory implementation, so that the search can be done with O(m log B n) disk accesses, being B the disk block size. Finally, it permits a distributed implementation with optimal speedup and negligible communication effort.
Matching a Set of Strings with Variable Length Don’t Cares, Theoretical Computer Science 178
, 1997
"... Given an alphabet A, a pattern p is a sequence (vl,...,vm) of words from A * called keywords. We represent p as a single word ..."
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Cited by 17 (4 self)
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Given an alphabet A, a pattern p is a sequence (vl,...,vm) of words from A * called keywords. We represent p as a single word