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14
DDDFM9001: Derivation of a Verified Microprocessor
, 1994
"... Derivation and verification represent alternate approaches to design. Derivation aims at deriving a "correct by construction" design while verification aims at constructing a post factum "proof of correctness" for a design. However, as researchers and engineers gain design experience in a formal fra ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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Derivation and verification represent alternate approaches to design. Derivation aims at deriving a "correct by construction" design while verification aims at constructing a post factum "proof of correctness" for a design. However, as researchers and engineers gain design experience in a formal framework, both approaches are emerging as interdependent facets of design. The thesis of this work is that alternate forms of formal reasoning must be integrated if formal methods are to support the natural analytical and generative reasoning that takes place in engineering practice. As a vehicle for this research, the DDD digital design derivation system was implemented to study formal hardware design in an algebraic framework. DDD is a firstorder transformation system which mechanizes a basic design algebra for synthesizing digital circuit descriptions from highlevel functional specifications. The system is a collection of correctness preserving transformations that promote a topdown desig...
Formal Synthesis in Circuit Design  A Classification and Survey
, 1996
"... . This article gives a survey on different methods of formal synthesis. We define what we mean by the term formal synthesis and delimit it from the other formal methods that can also be used to guarantee the correctness of an implementation. A possible classification scheme for formal synthesis m ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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. This article gives a survey on different methods of formal synthesis. We define what we mean by the term formal synthesis and delimit it from the other formal methods that can also be used to guarantee the correctness of an implementation. A possible classification scheme for formal synthesis methods is then introduced, based on which some significant research activities are classified and summarized. We also briefly introduce our own approach towards the formal synthesis of hardware. Finally, we compare these approaches from different points of view. 1 Introduction In everyday use, synthesis means putting together of parts or elements so as to make up a complex whole. However in the circuit design domain, synthesis stands for a stepwise refinement of circuit descriptions from higher levels of abstraction (specifications) to lower ones (implementations), including optimizations within one abstraction level. Synthesis can be performed by hand for small circuits. Nowadays mor...
An Example of Interactive Hardware Transformation
, 1993
"... This article presents an example of correct circuit design through interactive transformation. Interactive transformation differs from traditional hardware design transformation frameworks in that it focuses on the issue of finding suitable hardware architecture for the specified system and the issu ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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This article presents an example of correct circuit design through interactive transformation. Interactive transformation differs from traditional hardware design transformation frameworks in that it focuses on the issue of finding suitable hardware architecture for the specified system and the issue of architecture correctness. The transformation framework divides every transformation in designs into two steps. The first step is to find a proper architecture implementation. Although the framework does not guarantee existence of such an implementation, nor its discovery, it does provide a characterization of architectural implementation so that the question "is this a correct implementation?" can be answered by equational rewriting. The framework allows a correct architecture implementation to be automatically incorporated with control descriptions to obtain a new system description. The significance of this transformation framework lies in the fact that it requires simpler mechanism o...
Toward a Basis for Protocol Specification and Process Decomposition
 in Proceedings of the IFIP Conference on Hardware Description Languages and their Applications
, 1993
"... In a formalism of topdown design, we consider the decomposition of behavioral specifications into interacting sequential components. The higher level of description specifies the operations to be performed in a major computation step. The goal is to incorporate a given interface specification in a ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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In a formalism of topdown design, we consider the decomposition of behavioral specifications into interacting sequential components. The higher level of description specifies the operations to be performed in a major computation step. The goal is to incorporate a given interface specification in a lowerlevel specification that accounts for interactions with and among sequential components. This construction generalizes the earlier formalism of system factorization [14] to include interface protocols. It expands on the objectives of highlevel synthesis by considering controlsynchronization loops in scheduling. This paper presents a specification language for sequential process interaction and develops an interpretation based on finitestatemachines. Operations of minimization, composition and complementation are defined; the last of these being the key to topdown decomposition. A small example is used to illustrate the ideas. Keyword Codes: B.4.3; B.4.4; F.3.1 Keywords: Input/Outp...
Derivation of a DRAM Memory Interface by Sequential Decomposition
 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD
, 1993
"... Design and synthesis of DRAM based memory systems has been a difficult task in highlevel system synthesis because of the relatively complex protocols involved. In this paper, we illustrate a method for topdown design of a DRAM memory interface using a transformational approach. Sequential decomposi ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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Design and synthesis of DRAM based memory systems has been a difficult task in highlevel system synthesis because of the relatively complex protocols involved. In this paper, we illustrate a method for topdown design of a DRAM memory interface using a transformational approach. Sequential decomposition of the DRAM memory interface entails extraction of a DRAM memory object from a system description that incorporates the read/write protocol and accounts for refresh cycles. We apply sequential decomposition to a nontrivial example, a formally derived realization of the Nqthm FM9001 microprocessor specification [1], called DDDFM9001 [2]. 1 Introduction Derivation is a formalization of synthesis with more emphasis on "correct construction" than on design automation. Our tools are a set of transformations that are used to engineer an implementation from a specification, with each transformation accumulating information about the implementation. In a functional framework, a transformatio...
System Factorization in Codesign  A Case Study of the Use of Formal Techniques to Achieve HardwareSoftware Decomposition
 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Design
, 1993
"... A major element of codesign is the task of decomposing a design in order to target some of its components to hardware and some to software while maintaining the integrity of the execution model. We illustrate how a previously developed algebraic technique we call system factorization adapts to this ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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A major element of codesign is the task of decomposing a design in order to target some of its components to hardware and some to software while maintaining the integrity of the execution model. We illustrate how a previously developed algebraic technique we call system factorization adapts to this notion of decomposition. As an example, we describe how the mechanization of system factorization was used in the formal derivation of an implementation of Hunt's FM9001 microprocessor description using the DDD design derivation system. This case study demonstrates the benefits to systemlevel design in combining an executable modeling language, its associated formalreasoning systems, hardware synthesis tools, and a hardware development platform in an integrated prototyping environment. 1 Introduction With the increasing complexity and diversity of applications employing VLSI technology, design environments providing a unified framework for specification, design, and simulation/modeling ar...
An Introduction to Behavior Tables
, 1993
"... In this paper, we introduce behavior tables, an extension of register transfer tables, as a basis for system representation for reasoning about control, datapath, protocol, and data abstraction facets of system synthesis. The novelty in our approach is that it unifies different aspects of system syn ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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In this paper, we introduce behavior tables, an extension of register transfer tables, as a basis for system representation for reasoning about control, datapath, protocol, and data abstraction facets of system synthesis. The novelty in our approach is that it unifies different aspects of system synthesis and alleviates the need to change bases to reason about different facets of a design. Behavior tables can model indirection in system specification, by allowing names of registers and states to be treated as values. Behavior tables provide an environment for transformational design to derive a formally "correct" implementation from a specification. The emphasis of our work is on design correctness rather than design automation. Herein, we develop implementation relations over different facets of behavior tables. A set of transformations on the different facets of behavior tables, that preserve the implementation relations on the facets, are presented. Behavior tables and the transfor...
An Overview of the Formal Specification and Verification of the FM9001 Microprocessor
, 1994
"... This document presents the details of the FM9001 development, its specification, and its verification. 1 RESULTS ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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This document presents the details of the FM9001 development, its specification, and its verification. 1 RESULTS
Integrating Boolean Verification with Formal Derivation
 Dept. of Computer Science, Indiana University
, 1993
"... This summary describes results in integrating formal derivational reasoning with low level verification. The reported work is part of a project to construct an FPGA realization of Hunt's FM9001 Microprocessor description by applying the DDD (Digital Design Derivation) System in conjunction with low ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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This summary describes results in integrating formal derivational reasoning with low level verification. The reported work is part of a project to construct an FPGA realization of Hunt's FM9001 Microprocessor description by applying the DDD (Digital Design Derivation) System in conjunction with low level verification systems. The purpose is to study the interaction between derivation and verification in hardware design. The result of this work is a derived FM9001 implemented in FPGAs defined by a rigorous path to hardware which integrates both derivation and verification. 1 Introduction Philosophically, derivation and verification represent contrasting approaches to design. Derivation aims at deriving a "correct by construction" design. Verification aims at constructing a "proof of correctness" for a post factum design. However, as researchers and engineers gain design experience in a formal framework, both approaches are emerging as interdependent facets of design [12]. Experience sh...
The Formalization of a Simple Hardware Description Language
 Applied Formal Methods For Correct VLSI Design
, 1989
"... . A hierarchical, occurrenceoriented, combinational hardware description language has been formalized using the BoyerMoore logic. Instead of representing circuits as formulas of a particular logic, combinational circuits are represented by list constants in the BoyerMoore logic. A goodcircuit pr ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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. A hierarchical, occurrenceoriented, combinational hardware description language has been formalized using the BoyerMoore logic. Instead of representing circuits as formulas of a particular logic, combinational circuits are represented by list constants in the BoyerMoore logic. A goodcircuit predicate recognizes wellformed circuit descriptions; an interpreter provides the semantics of the language. This approach allows the direct verification of circuit specifications, as well as allowing the verification of circuit generating functions. A circuit generating function for a family of ALUs has been verified using these techniques. 1. Introduction The formalization of a hierarchical, occurrenceoriented, combinational hardware description language (HDL) has been employed to prove the correctness of functions which generate circuits. This formalization was carried out with the BoyerMoore logic and its associated mechanical theorem prover [Boyer & Moore 88]. HDL statements are forma...