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212
Probabilistic Roadmaps for Path Planning in HighDimensional Configuration Spaces
 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION
, 1996
"... A new motion planning method for robots in static workspaces is presented. This method proceeds in two phases: a learning phase and a query phase. In the learning phase, a probabilistic roadmap is constructed and stored as a graph whose nodes correspond to collisionfree configurations and whose edg ..."
Abstract

Cited by 890 (113 self)
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A new motion planning method for robots in static workspaces is presented. This method proceeds in two phases: a learning phase and a query phase. In the learning phase, a probabilistic roadmap is constructed and stored as a graph whose nodes correspond to collisionfree configurations and whose edges correspond to feasible paths between these configurations. These paths are computed using a simple and fast local planner. In the query phase, any given start and goal configurations of the robot are connected to two nodes of the roadmap; the roadmap is then searched for a path joining these two nodes. The method is general and easy to implement. It can be applied to virtually any type of holonomic robot. It requires selecting certain parameters (e.g., the duration of the learning phase) whose values depend on the scene, that is the robot and its workspace. But these values turn out to be relatively easy to choose, Increased efficiency can also be achieved by tailoring some components of the method (e.g., the local planner) to the considered robots. In this paper the method is applied to planar articulated robots with many degrees of freedom. Experimental results show that path planning can be done in a fraction of a second on a contemporary workstation (=150 MIPS), after learning for relatively short periods of time (a few dozen seconds)
Collision Detection Between Geometric Models: A Survey
 In Proc. of IMA Conference on Mathematics of Surfaces
, 1998
"... In this paper, we survey the state of the art in collision detection between general geometric models. The set of models include polygonal objects, spline or algebraic surfaces, CSG models, and deformable bodies. We present a number of techniques and systems available for contact determination. We a ..."
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Cited by 184 (15 self)
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In this paper, we survey the state of the art in collision detection between general geometric models. The set of models include polygonal objects, spline or algebraic surfaces, CSG models, and deformable bodies. We present a number of techniques and systems available for contact determination. We also describe several Nbody algorithms to reduce the number of pairwise intersection tests. 1 Introduction The goal of collision detection (also known as interference detection or contact determination) is to automatically report a geometric contact when it is about to occur or has actually occurred. The geometric models may be polygonal objects, splines, or algebraic surfaces. The problem is encountered in computeraided design and machining (CAD/CAM), robotics and automation, manufacturing, computer graphics, animation and computer simulated environments. Collision detection enables simulationbased design, tolerance verification, engineering analysis, assembly and disassembly, motion pla...
On multiple moving objects
 Algorithmica
, 1987
"... This paper explores the motion planning problem for multiple mov ing objects. The approach taken consists of assigning priorities to the objects, then planning motions one object at a time. For each moving object, the planner constructs a configuration spacetime that represents the timevarying co ..."
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Cited by 171 (0 self)
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This paper explores the motion planning problem for multiple mov ing objects. The approach taken consists of assigning priorities to the objects, then planning motions one object at a time. For each moving object, the planner constructs a configuration spacetime that represents the timevarying constraints im posed on the moving object by the other moving and stationary objects. The planner represents this spacetime approximately, using twodimensional slices. The spacetime is then searched for a collisionfree path. The paper demonstrates this approach in two domains. One domain consists of translating planar objects; the other domain consists of twolink planar articulated arms.
A Fast Algorithm for Incremental Distance Calculation
 In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, 1991
"... A simple and efficient algorithm for finding the closest points between two convex polyhedra is described here. Data from numerous experiments tested on a broad set of convex polyhedra on ! 3 show that the running time is roughly constant for finding closest points when nearest points are approxim ..."
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Cited by 154 (4 self)
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A simple and efficient algorithm for finding the closest points between two convex polyhedra is described here. Data from numerous experiments tested on a broad set of convex polyhedra on ! 3 show that the running time is roughly constant for finding closest points when nearest points are approximately known and is linear in total number of vertices if no special initialization is done. This algorithm can be used for collision detection, computation of the distance between two polyhedra in threedimensional space, and other robotics problems. It forms the heart of the motion planning algorithm of [1]. 1 Introduction In this paper we present a simple method for finding and tracking the closest points on a pair of convex polyhedra. The method is generally applicable, but is especially well suited to repetitive distance calculation as the objects move in a sequence of small, discrete steps. The method works by finding and maintaining the pair of closest features (vertex, edge, or face)...
Pathplanning strategies for a point mobile automaton moving amidst unknown obstacles of arbitrary shape
 ALGORITHMICA
, 1987
"... The problem of path planning for an automaton moving in a twodimensional scene filled with unknown obstacles is considered. The automaton is presented as a point; obstacles can be of an arbitrary shape, with continuous boundaries and of finite size; no restriction on the size of the scene is impos ..."
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Cited by 148 (1 self)
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The problem of path planning for an automaton moving in a twodimensional scene filled with unknown obstacles is considered. The automaton is presented as a point; obstacles can be of an arbitrary shape, with continuous boundaries and of finite size; no restriction on the size of the scene is imposed. The information available to the automaton is limited to its own current coordinates and those of the target position. Also, when the automaton hits an obstacle, this fact is detected by the automaton's "'tactile sensor. " This information is shown to be sufficient for reaching the target or concluding in finite time that the target cannot be reached. A worstcase lower bound on the length of paths generated by any algorithm operating within the framework of the accepted model is developed; the bound is expressed in terms of the perimeters of the obstacles met by the automaton in the scene. Algorithms that guarantee reaching the target (if the target is reachable), and tests for target reachability are presented. The efficiency of the algorithms is studied, and worstcase upper bounds on the length of generated paths are produced.
Vision for Mobile Robot Navigation: A Survey
 IEEE, TRANS. PAMI
, 2002
"... This paper surveys the developments of the last 20 years in the area of vision for mobile robot navigation. Two major components of the paper deal with indoor navigation and outdoor navigation. For each component, we have further subdivided our treatment of the subject on the basis of structured an ..."
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Cited by 135 (1 self)
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This paper surveys the developments of the last 20 years in the area of vision for mobile robot navigation. Two major components of the paper deal with indoor navigation and outdoor navigation. For each component, we have further subdivided our treatment of the subject on the basis of structured and unstructured environments. For indoor robots in structured environments, we have dealt separately with the cases of geometrical and topological models of space. For unstructured environments, we have discussed the cases of navigation using optical flows, using methods from the appearancebased paradigm, and by recognition of specific objects in the environment.
Solving geometric problems with the rotating calipers
, 1983
"... Shamos [1] recently showed that the diameter of a convex nsided polygon could be computed in O(n) time using a very elegant and simple procedure which resembles rotating a set of calipers around the polygon once. In this paper we show that this simple idea can be generalized in two ways: several se ..."
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Cited by 112 (14 self)
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Shamos [1] recently showed that the diameter of a convex nsided polygon could be computed in O(n) time using a very elegant and simple procedure which resembles rotating a set of calipers around the polygon once. In this paper we show that this simple idea can be generalized in two ways: several sets of calipers can be used simultaneously on one convex polygon, or one set of calipers can be used on several convex polygons simultaneously. We then show that these generalizations allow us to obtain simple O(n) algorithms for solving a variety of problems defined on convex polygons. Such problems include (1) finding the minimumarea rectangle enclosing a polygon, (2) computing the maximum distance between two polygons, (3) performing the vectorsum of two polygons, (4) merging polygons in a convex hull finding algorithms, and (5) finding the critical support lines between two polygons. Finding the critical support lines, in turn, leads to obtaining solutions to several additional problems concerned with visibility, collision, avoidance, range fitting, linear separability, and computing the Grenander distance between sets. 1.
Efficient Collision Detection for Animation and Robotics
, 1993
"... We present efficient algorithms for collision detection and contact determination between geometric models, described by linear or curved boundaries, undergoing rigid motion. The heart of our collision detection algorithm is a simple and fast incremental method to compute the distance between two ..."
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Cited by 108 (19 self)
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We present efficient algorithms for collision detection and contact determination between geometric models, described by linear or curved boundaries, undergoing rigid motion. The heart of our collision detection algorithm is a simple and fast incremental method to compute the distance between two convex polyhedra. It utilizes convexity to establish some local applicability criteria for verifying the closest features. A preprocessing procedure is used to subdivide each feature's neighboring features to a constant size and thus guarantee expected constant running time for each test. The expected constant time performance is an attribute from exploiting the geometric coherence and locality. Let n be the total number of features, the expected run time is between O( p n) and O(n) ...
Topologically Sweeping Visibility Complexes via Pseudotriangulations
, 1996
"... This paper describes a new algorithm for constructing the set of free bitangents of a collection of n disjoint convex obstacles of constant complexity. The algorithm runs in time O(n log n + k), where k is the output size, and uses O(n) space. While earlier algorithms achieve the same optimal run ..."
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Cited by 86 (9 self)
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This paper describes a new algorithm for constructing the set of free bitangents of a collection of n disjoint convex obstacles of constant complexity. The algorithm runs in time O(n log n + k), where k is the output size, and uses O(n) space. While earlier algorithms achieve the same optimal running time, this is the first optimal algorithm that uses only linear space. The visibility graph or the visibility complex can be computed in the same time and space. The only complicated data structure used by the algorithm is a splittable queue, which can be implemented easily using redblack trees. The algorithm is conceptually very simple, and should therefore be easy to implement and quite fast in practice. The algorithm relies on greedy pseudotriangulations, which are subgraphs of the visibility graph with many nice combinatorial properties. These properties, and thus the correctness of the algorithm, are partially derived from properties of a certain partial order on the faces of th...
Assembly Maintainability Study with Motion Planning
, 1995
"... Maintainability is an important issue in design where the accessibility of certain parts is determined for routine maintenance. In the past its study has been largely manual and labor intensive. Either by using physical mockup or computer animation with CAD models of a design, the task relies on hum ..."
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Cited by 84 (9 self)
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Maintainability is an important issue in design where the accessibility of certain parts is determined for routine maintenance. In the past its study has been largely manual and labor intensive. Either by using physical mockup or computer animation with CAD models of a design, the task relies on human to provide an access path for the part. In this paper, we present an automated approach to replace this manual process. By applying results from and developing extensions to research in motion planning and other fields, we demonstrate that an automated maintainability study system is feasible. We describe general extensions needed to adapt robotic motion planning techniques in maintainability studies. We show results from applying such a system to two classes of industrial application problems. Key Words: Maintainability Study, Motion Planning, Design Automation, Rapid Prototyping, Visualization. 1 Introduction Assembly maintainability studies attempt to find whether it is possible to ...