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A solution to Plato’s problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge
 Psychological review
, 1997
"... How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, latent semantic analysis (LS ..."
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Cited by 1093 (9 self)
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How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, latent semantic analysis (LSA), is presented and used to successfully simulate such learning and several other psycholinguistic phenomena. By inducing global knowledge indirectly from local cooccurrence data in a large body of representative text, LSA acquired knowledge about the full vocabulary of English at a comparable rate to schoolchildren. LSA uses no prior linguistic or perceptual similarity knowledge; it is based solely on a general mathematical learning method that achieves powerful inductive effects by extracting the right number of dimensions (e.g., 300) to represent objects and contexts. Relations to other theories, phenomena, and problems are sketched. Prologue "How much do we know at any time? Much more, or so I believe, than we know we know!" —Agatha Christie, The Moving Finger A typical American seventh grader knows the meaning of
Précis of "The number sense"
"... Number sense " is a shorthand for our ability to quickly understand, approximate, and manipulate numerical quantities. My hypothesis is that number sense rests on cerebral circuits that have evolved specifically for the purpose of representing basic arithmetic knowledge. Four lines of evidence sugg ..."
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Cited by 151 (21 self)
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Number sense " is a shorthand for our ability to quickly understand, approximate, and manipulate numerical quantities. My hypothesis is that number sense rests on cerebral circuits that have evolved specifically for the purpose of representing basic arithmetic knowledge. Four lines of evidence suggesting that number sense constitutes a domainspecific, biologicallydetermined ability are reviewed: the presence of evolutionary precursors of arithmetic in animals; the early emergence of arithmetic competence in infants independently of other abilities, including language; the existence of a homology between the animal, infant, and human adult abilities for number processing ; and the existence of a dedicated cerebral substrate. In adults of all cultures, lesions to the inferior parietal region can specifically impair number sense while leaving the knowledge of other cognitive domains intact. Furthermore, this region is demonstrably activated during number processing. I postulate that higherlevel cultural developments in arithmetic emerge through the establishment of linkages between this core analogical representation (the " number line ") and other verbal and visual representations of number notations. The neural and cognitive organization of those representations can explain why some mathematical concepts are intuitive, while others are so difficult to grasp. Thus, the ultimate foundations of mathematics rests on core representations that have been internalized in our brains through evolution.
Three Parietal Circuits for Number Processing
 Cognitive Neuropsychology
, 2003
"... Did evolution endow the human brain with a predisposition to represent and acquire knowledge about numbers? Although the parietal lobe... ..."
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Cited by 106 (20 self)
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Did evolution endow the human brain with a predisposition to represent and acquire knowledge about numbers? Although the parietal lobe...
Is numerical comparison digital? Analogical and symbolic effects in twodigit number comparison
 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance
, 1990
"... Do Ss compare multidigit numbers digit by digit (symbolic model) or do they compute the whole magnitude of the numbers before comparing them (holistic model)? In 4 experiments of timed 2digit number comparisons with a fixed standard, the findings of Hinrichs, Yurko, and Hu (1981) were extended with ..."
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Cited by 59 (13 self)
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Do Ss compare multidigit numbers digit by digit (symbolic model) or do they compute the whole magnitude of the numbers before comparing them (holistic model)? In 4 experiments of timed 2digit number comparisons with a fixed standard, the findings of Hinrichs, Yurko, and Hu (1981) were extended with French Ss. Reaction times (RTs) decreased with targetstandard distance, with discontinuities at the boundaries of the standard's decade appearing only with standards 55 and 66 but not with 65. The data are compatible with the holistic model. A symbolic interference model that posits the simul~meous comparison of decades and units can also account for the results. To separate the 2 models, the decades and units digits of target numbers were presented asynchronously in Experiment 4. Contrary to the prediction of the interference model, presenting the units before the decades did not change the influence of units on RTs. Pros and cons of the holistic model are discusseft. Moyer and Landauer (1967) showed that reaction times for deciding which of two digits is the largest decrease as the numerical distance between the two increases. This finding, called the distance effect, was previously found in perceptual comparisons of various materials, for example, the length of bars (Johnson, 1939). Since then, it has been reproduced many times with miscellaneous materials: digits (Banks, Fujii,
Simple heuristics and rules of thumb: Where psychologists and behavioural biologists might meet
, 2005
"... ..."
Semantic Distance Effects on Object and Action Naming
"... Graded interference effects were tested in a naming task, in parallel for objects and actions. Participants named either object or action pictures presented in the context of other pictures (blocks) that were either semantically very similar, or somewhat semantically similar or semantically dissimil ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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Graded interference effects were tested in a naming task, in parallel for objects and actions. Participants named either object or action pictures presented in the context of other pictures (blocks) that were either semantically very similar, or somewhat semantically similar or semantically dissimilar. We found that naming latencies for both object and action words were modulated by the semantic similarity between the exemplars in each block, providing evidence in both domains of graded semantic effects. Graded Semantic Effects in Object and Action Naming Miller and Fellbaum (1991) wrote: "When psychologists think about the organization of lexical memory it is nearly always the organization of nouns that they have in mind" (p.214). Even more specifically, we may add, often it is nouns referring to objects that we have in mind. Although the objectnoun domain is certainly relevant to studies of lexical memory, it only represents part of adults' lexical knowledge; theories and tools deve...
The problemsize effect in mental addition: Developmental and crossnational trends
 Mathematical Cognition
, 1996
"... Across two experiments, the magnitude of the problemsize effect in mental addition was examined for kindergarten and elementary school children, as well as adults, from mainland China and the United States. In North American samples, the problemsize effect represents the finding that arithmetic pr ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Across two experiments, the magnitude of the problemsize effect in mental addition was examined for kindergarten and elementary school children, as well as adults, from mainland China and the United States. In North American samples, the problemsize effect represents the finding that arithmetic problems consisting of largervalued numbers (e.g. 8+7) take longer to solve and are more error prone than are problems consisting of smallervalued numbers (e.g. 2+3). This standard finding was found for the kindergarten, elementary school, and adult samples from the United States. For the Chinese children, the problem size effect was evident in kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. However, the effect had disappeared at the end of first grade and had reversed (i.e. largervalued addition problems were solved more quickly than smallervalued problems) by the end of third grade. However, the standard problemsize effect “reappeared ” for the Chinese adults. The results are interpreted in terms of theoretical models of the nature of the memory representation for arithmetic facts and in terms of the mechanisms that govern the development of these representations. In the nearly 25 years since Groen and Parkman’s (1972) seminal study of the mental processes underlying the solution of simple addition problems, cognitive arithmetic has emerged as a vibrant area of research. Scientists in this area have mapped the cognitive processes and neurological correlates that govern the mental solution of simple and complex arithmetic problems and have extended these basic findings to more applied issues, such as
Conducting a systematic review
 AustralianCriticalCare
, 2000
"... Oxidative stress and impaired cellular longevity in the pancreas and skeletal muscle in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Oxidative stress and impaired cellular longevity in the pancreas and skeletal muscle in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes
Individual differences in cognitive arithmetic
 Journal o/ Experimental Psychology: General
, 1987
"... Unities in the processes involved in solving arithmetic problems of varying operations have been suggested by studies that have used both factoranalytic and informationprocessing methods. We designed the present study to investigate the convergence of mental processes assessed by paperandpencil ..."
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Cited by 6 (6 self)
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Unities in the processes involved in solving arithmetic problems of varying operations have been suggested by studies that have used both factoranalytic and informationprocessing methods. We designed the present study to investigate the convergence of mental processes assessed by paperandpencil measures defining the Numerical Facility factor and component processes for cognitive arithmetic identified by using chronometric techniques. A sample of 100 undergraduate students responded to 320 arithmetic problems in a truefalse reactiontime (RT) verification paradigm and were administered a battery of ability measures spanning Numerical Facility, Perceptual Speed, and Spatial Relations factors. The 320 cognitive arithmetic problems comprised 80 problems of each of four types: simple addition, complex addition, simple multiplication, and complex multiplication. The informationprocessing results indicated that regression models that included a structural variable consistent with memory network retrieval of arithmetic facts were the best predictors of RT to each of the four types of arithmetic problems. The results also verified the effects of other elementary processes that are involved in the mental solving of arithmetic problems, including encoding of single digits and carrying