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Description Logic Programs: Combining Logic Programs with Description Logic
, 2003
"... We show how to interoperate, semantically and inferentially, between the leading Semantic Web approaches to rules (RuleML Logic Programs) and ontologies (OWL/DAML+OIL Description Logic) via analyzing their expressive intersection. To do so, we define a new intermediate knowledge representation (KR) ..."
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Cited by 397 (41 self)
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We show how to interoperate, semantically and inferentially, between the leading Semantic Web approaches to rules (RuleML Logic Programs) and ontologies (OWL/DAML+OIL Description Logic) via analyzing their expressive intersection. To do so, we define a new intermediate knowledge representation (KR) contained within this intersection: Description Logic Programs (DLP), and the closely related Description Horn Logic (DHL) which is an expressive fragment of firstorder logic (FOL). DLP provides a significant degree of expressiveness, substantially greater than the RDFSchema fragment of Description Logic.
Logic Programming and Knowledge Representation
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1994
"... In this paper, we review recent work aimed at the application of declarative logic programming to knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. We consider exten sions of the language of definite logic programs by classical (strong) negation, disjunc tion, and some modal operators and sh ..."
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Cited by 224 (21 self)
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In this paper, we review recent work aimed at the application of declarative logic programming to knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. We consider exten sions of the language of definite logic programs by classical (strong) negation, disjunc tion, and some modal operators and show how each of the added features extends the representational power of the language.
Reasoning about Temporal Relations: A Maximal Tractable Subclass of Allen's Interval Algebra
 Journal of the ACM
, 1995
"... We introduce a new subclass of Allen's interval algebra we call "ORDHorn subclass," which is a strict superset of the "pointisable subclass." We prove that reasoning in the ORDHorn subclass is a polynomialtime problem and show that the pathconsistency method is sufficient for deciding satisfiabil ..."
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Cited by 161 (9 self)
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We introduce a new subclass of Allen's interval algebra we call "ORDHorn subclass," which is a strict superset of the "pointisable subclass." We prove that reasoning in the ORDHorn subclass is a polynomialtime problem and show that the pathconsistency method is sufficient for deciding satisfiability. Further, using an extensive machinegenerated case analysis, we show that the ORDHorn subclass is a maximal tractable subclass of the full algebra (assuming<F NaN> P6=NP). In fact, it is the unique greatest tractable subclass amongst the subclasses that contain all basic relations. This work has been supported by the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under grant ITW 8901 8 as part of the WIP project and under grant ITW 9201 as part of the TACOS project. 1 1 Introduction Temporal information is often conveyed qualitatively by specifying the relative positions of time intervals such as ". . . point to the figure while explaining the performance of the system . . . "...
Knowledge compilation and theory approximation
 Journal of the ACM
, 1996
"... Computational efficiency is a central concern in the design of knowledge representation systems. In order to obtain efficient systems, it has been suggested that one should limit the form of the statements in the knowledge base or use an incomplete inference mechanism. The former approach is often t ..."
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Cited by 157 (5 self)
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Computational efficiency is a central concern in the design of knowledge representation systems. In order to obtain efficient systems, it has been suggested that one should limit the form of the statements in the knowledge base or use an incomplete inference mechanism. The former approach is often too restrictive for practical applications, whereas the latter leads to uncertainty about exactly what can and cannot be inferred from the knowledge base. We present a third alternative, in which knowledge given in a general representation language is translated (compiled) into a tractable form — allowing for efficient subsequent query answering. We show how propositional logical theories can be compiled into Horn theories that approximate the original information. The approximations bound the original theory from below and above in terms of logical strength. The procedures are extended to other tractable languages (for example, binary clauses) and to the firstorder case. Finally, we demonstrate the generality of our approach by compiling concept descriptions in a general framebased language into a tractable form.
On the Complexity of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: A Maximal Tractable Fragment of the Region Connection Calculus
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... The computational properties of qualitative spatial reasoning have been investigated to some degree. However, the question for the boundary between polynomial and NPhard reasoning problems has not been addressed yet. In this paper we explore this boundary in the "Region Connection Calculus" RCC8. ..."
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Cited by 108 (22 self)
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The computational properties of qualitative spatial reasoning have been investigated to some degree. However, the question for the boundary between polynomial and NPhard reasoning problems has not been addressed yet. In this paper we explore this boundary in the "Region Connection Calculus" RCC8. We extend Bennett's encoding of RCC8 in modal logic. Based on this encoding, we prove that reasoning is NPcomplete in general and identify a maximal tractable subset of the relations in RCC8 that contains all base relations. Further, we show that for this subset pathconsistency is sufficient for deciding consistency. 1 Introduction When describing a spatial configuration or when reasoning about such a configuration, often it is not possible or desirable to obtain precise, quantitative data. In these cases, qualitative reasoning about spatial configurations may be used. One particular approach in this context has been developed by Randell, Cui, and Cohn [20], the socalled Region Connecti...
Knowledge Compilation Using Horn Approximations
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF AAAI91
, 1991
"... We present a new approach to developing fast and efficient knowledge representation systems. Previous approaches to the problem of tractable inference have used restricted languages or incomplete inference mechanisms  problems include lack of expressive power, lack of inferential power, and/or la ..."
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Cited by 106 (9 self)
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We present a new approach to developing fast and efficient knowledge representation systems. Previous approaches to the problem of tractable inference have used restricted languages or incomplete inference mechanisms  problems include lack of expressive power, lack of inferential power, and/or lack of a formal characterization of what can and cannot be inferred. To overcome these disadvantages, we introduce a knowledge compilation method. We allow the user to enter statements in a general, unrestricted representation language, which the system compiles into a restricted language that allows for efficient inference. Since an exact translation into a tractable form is often impossible, the system searches for the best approximation of the original information. We will describe how the approximation can be used to speed up inference without giving up correctness or completeness. We illustrate our method by studying the approximation of logical theories by Horn theories. Following the ...
WellFounded Semantics for Extended Logic Programs with Dynamic Preferences
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1996
"... The paper describes an extension of wellfounded semantics for logic programs with two types of negation. In this extension information about preferences between rules can be expressed in the logical language and derived dynamically. This is achieved by using a reserved predicate symbol and a naming ..."
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Cited by 91 (10 self)
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The paper describes an extension of wellfounded semantics for logic programs with two types of negation. In this extension information about preferences between rules can be expressed in the logical language and derived dynamically. This is achieved by using a reserved predicate symbol and a naming technique. Conflicts among rules are resolved whenever possible on the basis of derived preference information. The wellfounded conclusions of prioritized logic programs can be computed in polynomial time. A legal reasoning example illustrates the usefulness of the approach. 1. Introduction: Why Dynamic Preferences are Needed Preferences among defaults play a crucial role in nonmonotonic reasoning. One source of preferences that has been studied intensively is specificity (Poole, 1985; Touretzky, 1986; Touretzky, Thomason, & Horty, 1991). In case of a conflict between defaults we tend to prefer the more specific one since this default provides more reliable information. E.g., if we know t...
Structure Identification in Relational Data
, 1997
"... This paper presents several investigations into the prospects for identifying meaningful structures in empirical data, namely, structures permitting effective organization of the data to meet requirements of future queries. We propose a general framework whereby the notion of identifiability is give ..."
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Cited by 74 (2 self)
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This paper presents several investigations into the prospects for identifying meaningful structures in empirical data, namely, structures permitting effective organization of the data to meet requirements of future queries. We propose a general framework whereby the notion of identifiability is given a precise formal definition similar to that of learnability. Using this framework, we then explore if a tractable procedure exists for deciding whether a given relation is decomposable into a constraint network or a CNF theory with desirable topology and, if the answer is positive, identifying the desired decomposition. Finally, we
On the Complexity Analysis of Static Analyses
 Journal of the ACM
, 1999
"... . This paper argues that for many algorithms, and static analysis ..."
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Cited by 66 (3 self)
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. This paper argues that for many algorithms, and static analysis
The comparative linguistics of knowledge representation
 In Proc. of IJCAI’95
, 1995
"... We develop a methodology for comparing knowledge representation formalisms in terms of their "representational succinctness, " that is, their ability to express knowledge situations relatively efficiently. We use this framework for comparing many important formalisms for knowledge base representatio ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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We develop a methodology for comparing knowledge representation formalisms in terms of their "representational succinctness, " that is, their ability to express knowledge situations relatively efficiently. We use this framework for comparing many important formalisms for knowledge base representation: propositional logic, default logic, circumscription, and model preference defaults; and, at a lower level, Horn formulas, characteristic models, decision trees, disjunctive normal form, and conjunctive normal form. We also show that adding new variables improves the effective expressibility of certain knowledge representation formalisms. 1