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Inaccessibility in Constructive Set Theory and Type Theory
, 1998
"... This paper is the first in a series whose objective is to study notions of large sets in the context of formal theories of constructivity. The two theories considered are Aczel's constructive set theory (CZF) and MartinLof's intuitionistic theory of types. This paper treats Mahlo's numbers whi ..."
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This paper is the first in a series whose objective is to study notions of large sets in the context of formal theories of constructivity. The two theories considered are Aczel's constructive set theory (CZF) and MartinLof's intuitionistic theory of types. This paper treats Mahlo's numbers which give rise classically to the enumerations of inaccessibles of all transfinite orders. We extend the axioms of CZF and show that the resulting theory, when augmented by the tertium non datur, is equivalent to ZF plus the assertion that there are inaccessibles of all transfinite orders. Finally the theorems of that extension of CZF are interpreted in an extension of MartinLof's intuitionistic theory of types by a universe. 1 Prefatory and historical remarks The paper is organized as follows: After recalling Mahlo's numbers and relating the history of universes in MartinLof type theory in section 1, we study notions of inaccessibility in the context of Aczel's constructive set theo...
The Unfolding of NonFinitist Arithmetic
, 2000
"... The unfolding of schematic formal systems is a novel concept which was initiated in Feferman [6]. This paper is mainly concerned with the prooftheoretic analysis of various unfolding systems for nonnitist arithmetic NFA. In particular, we examine two restricted unfoldings U 0 (NFA) and U 1 (NFA ..."
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The unfolding of schematic formal systems is a novel concept which was initiated in Feferman [6]. This paper is mainly concerned with the prooftheoretic analysis of various unfolding systems for nonnitist arithmetic NFA. In particular, we examine two restricted unfoldings U 0 (NFA) and U 1 (NFA), as well as a full unfolding, U(NFA). The principal results then state: (i) U 0 (NFA) is equivalent to PA; (ii) U 1 (NFA) is equivalent to RA<! ; (iii) U(NFA) is equivalent to RA< 0 . Thus U(NFA) is prooftheoretically equivalent to predicative analysis.
Challenges to Predicative Foundations of Arithmetic
 in Between Logic and Intuition Essays in Honor of Charles Parsons
, 1996
"... This paper was written while the first author was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, CA) whose facilities and support, under grants from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Science Foundation, have been greatly appreciated. ..."
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This paper was written while the first author was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, CA) whose facilities and support, under grants from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Science Foundation, have been greatly appreciated.
Is the Continuum Hypothesis a definite mathematical problem?
"... [t]he analysis of the phrase “how many ” unambiguously leads to a definite meaning for the question [“How many different sets of integers do their exist?”]: the problem is to find out which one of the א’s is the number of points of a straight line … Cantor, after having proved that this number is gr ..."
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[t]he analysis of the phrase “how many ” unambiguously leads to a definite meaning for the question [“How many different sets of integers do their exist?”]: the problem is to find out which one of the א’s is the number of points of a straight line … Cantor, after having proved that this number is greater than א0, conjectured that it is א1. An equivalent proposition is this: any infinite subset of the continuum has the power either of the set of integers or of the whole continuum. This is Cantor’s continuum hypothesis. … But, although Cantor’s set theory has now had a development of more than sixty years and the [continuum] problem is evidently of great importance for it, nothing has been proved so far relative to the question of what the power of the continuum is or whether its subsets satisfy the condition just stated, except that … it is true for a certain infinitesimal fraction of these subsets, [namely] the analytic sets. Not even an upper bound, however high, can be assigned for the power of the continuum. It is undecided whether this number is regular or singular, accessible or inaccessible, and (except for König’s negative result) what its character of cofinality is. Gödel 1947, 516517 [in Gödel 1990, 178]
Unfolding finitist arithmetic
, 2010
"... The concept of the (full) unfolding U(S) of a schematic system S is used to answer the following question: Which operations and predicates, and which principles concerning them, ought to be accepted if one has accepted S? The program to determine U(S) for various systems S of foundational significan ..."
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The concept of the (full) unfolding U(S) of a schematic system S is used to answer the following question: Which operations and predicates, and which principles concerning them, ought to be accepted if one has accepted S? The program to determine U(S) for various systems S of foundational significance was previously carried out for a system of nonfinitist arithmetic, NFA; it was shown that U(NFA) is prooftheoretically equivalent to predicative analysis. In the present paper we work out the unfolding notions for a basic schematic system of finitist arithmetic, FA, and for an extension of that by a form BR of the socalled Bar Rule. It is shown that U(FA) and U(FA + BR) are prooftheoretically equivalent, respectively, to Primitive Recursive Arithmetic, PRA, and to Peano Arithmetic, PA.
Peirce's Abduction and Gödel's Axioms of Infinity: Philosophical Reflections on the Mathematics of Novelty
 the 11th Int. Symp. LOGICA'97, Liblice Chateau, Czech Republic
, 1997
"... . Charles Sanders Peirce and Kurt Godel both conceived of the limitedness of human thought as possible to be overcome by intuitively formed statements, which should be rich in verifiable consequences in order to lead to justifiable extensions. Peirce developed to this purpose a theory of abductive r ..."
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. Charles Sanders Peirce and Kurt Godel both conceived of the limitedness of human thought as possible to be overcome by intuitively formed statements, which should be rich in verifiable consequences in order to lead to justifiable extensions. Peirce developed to this purpose a theory of abductive reasoning, whereas Godel theorized about axioms of infinity. Even though Godel largely concerned himself with mathematical thought only, as opposed to Peirce's much broader programme concerning all scientific thought, we carry out a comparison between the views held by both in order tohopefully shed an interesting light on a (mathematical) conception of the transfinity of thought. 1 Introduction "To infinity ... and beyond!"  the transfinity of thought. Our knowledge, our theories, our thought, is necessarily incomplete. We have but limited means to understand a reality  our picture of that reality, phrased in terms of theories, will always be imperfect. The issue at the heart of the mat...
The Higher Infinite in Proof Theory
 Logic Colloquium '95. Lecture Notes in Logic
, 1995
"... this paper. The exposition here diverges from the presentation given at the conference in two regards. Firstly, the talk began with a broad introduction, explaining the current rationale and goals of ordinaltheoretic proof theory, which take the place of the original Hilbert Program. Since this par ..."
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this paper. The exposition here diverges from the presentation given at the conference in two regards. Firstly, the talk began with a broad introduction, explaining the current rationale and goals of ordinaltheoretic proof theory, which take the place of the original Hilbert Program. Since this part of the talk is now incorporated in the first two sections of the BSLpaper [48] there is no point in reproducing it here. Secondly, we shall omit those parts of the talk concerned with infinitary proof systems of ramified set theory as they can also be found in [48] and even more detailed in [45]. Thirdly, thanks to the aforementioned omissions, the advantage of present paper over the talk is to allow for a much more detailed account of the actual information furnished by ordinal analyses and the role of large cardinal hypotheses in devising ordinal representation systems. 2 Observations on ordinal analyses
Weak theories of truth and explicit mathematics. Submitted for publication. 19
"... We study weak theories of truth over combinatory logic and their relationship to weak systems of explicit mathematics. In particular, we consider two truth theories TPR and TPT of primitive recursive and feasible strength. The latter theory is a novel abstract truththeoretic setting which is able t ..."
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We study weak theories of truth over combinatory logic and their relationship to weak systems of explicit mathematics. In particular, we consider two truth theories TPR and TPT of primitive recursive and feasible strength. The latter theory is a novel abstract truththeoretic setting which is able to interpret expressive feasible subsystems of explicit mathematics. 1
Unfolding feasible arithmetic and weak truth
, 2012
"... In this paper we continue Feferman’s unfolding program initiated in [11] which uses the concept of the unfolding U(S) of a schematic system S in order to describe those operations, predicates and principles concerning them, which are implicit in the acceptance of S. The program has been carried thro ..."
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In this paper we continue Feferman’s unfolding program initiated in [11] which uses the concept of the unfolding U(S) of a schematic system S in order to describe those operations, predicates and principles concerning them, which are implicit in the acceptance of S. The program has been carried through for a schematic system of nonfinitist arithmetic NFA in Feferman and Strahm [13] and for a system FA (with and without Bar rule) in Feferman and Strahm [14]. The present contribution elucidates the concept of unfolding for a basic schematic system FEA of feasible arithmetic. Apart from the operational unfolding U0(FEA) of FEA, we study two full unfolding notions, namely the predicate unfolding U(FEA) and a more general truth unfolding UT(FEA) of FEA, the latter making use of a truth predicate added to the language of the operational unfolding. The main results obtained are that the provably convergent functions on binary words for all three unfolding systems are precisely those being computable in polynomial time. The upper bound computations make essential use of a specific theory of truth TPT over combinatory logic, which has recently been introduced in Eberhard and Strahm [7] and Eberhard [6] and whose involved prooftheoretic analysis is due to Eberhard [6]. The results of this paper were first announced in [8].