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A Study of the Energy Consumption Characteristics Of Cryptographic Algorithms and . . .
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING
, 2006
"... Security is becoming an everyday concern for a wide range of electronic systems that manipulate, communicate, and store sensitive data. An important and emerging category of such electronic systems are batterypowered mobile appliances, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cell phones, w ..."
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Security is becoming an everyday concern for a wide range of electronic systems that manipulate, communicate, and store sensitive data. An important and emerging category of such electronic systems are batterypowered mobile appliances, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cell phones, which are severely constrained in the resources they possess, namely, processor, battery, and memory. This work focuses on one important constraint of such devicesbattery lifeand examines how it is impacted by the use of various security mechanisms. In this paper, we first present a comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of a wide range of cryptographic algorithms that form the building blocks of security mechanisms such as security protocols. We then study the energy consumption requirements of the most popular transportlayer security protocol: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). We investigate the impact of various parameters at the protocol level (such as cipher suites, authentication mechanisms, and transaction sizes, etc.) and the cryptographic algorithm level (cipher modes, strength) on the overall energy consumption for secure data transactions. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of SSL. For our studies, we have developed a measurementbased experimental testbed that consists of an iPAQ PDA connected to a wireless local area network (LAN) and running Linux, a PCbased data acquisition system for realtime current measurement, the OpenSSL implementation of the SSL protocol, and parameterizable SSL client and server test programs. Based on our results, we also discuss various opportunities for realizing energyefficient implementations of security protocols. We believe such investigations to be an imp...
An implementation framework for HPF distributed arrays on messagepassing parallel computer systems
 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
, 1996
"... implementation of such distributed array structures and their access on message passing computers is not straightforward. This holds especially for distributed arrays that are aligned to each other and given a blockcyclic distribution. In this paper, an implementation framework is presented for HPF ..."
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Cited by 29 (11 self)
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implementation of such distributed array structures and their access on message passing computers is not straightforward. This holds especially for distributed arrays that are aligned to each other and given a blockcyclic distribution. In this paper, an implementation framework is presented for HPF distributed arrays on message passing computers. Methods are presented for efficient (in space and time) local index enumeration, local storage, and communication. Techniques for local set enumeration provide the basis for constructing local iteration sets and communication sets. It is shown that both local set enumeration and local storage schemes can be derived from the same equation. Local set enumeration and local storage schemes are shown to be orthogonal, i.e., they can be freely combined. Moreover, for linear access sequences generated by our enumeration methods, the local address calculations can be moved out of the enumeration loop, yielding efficient local memory address generation. The local set enumeration methods are implemented by using a relatively simple general transformation rule for absorbing ownership tests. This transformation rule can be repeatedly applied to absorb multiple ownership tests. Performance figures are presented for local iteration overhead, a simple communication pattern, and storage efficiency. Index TermsHPF, message passing, message aggregation, distributed arrays, parallel computers. 1
A.T.White, Enumeration 2cell imbeddings of connected graphs,Proc.Amer.Math.Soc
"... ABSTRACT. A systematic approach is developed for enumerating congruence classes of 2cell imbeddings of connected graphs on closed orientable 2manifolds. The method is applied to the wheel graphs and to the complete graphs. Congruence class genus polynomials and congruence class imbedding polynomia ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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ABSTRACT. A systematic approach is developed for enumerating congruence classes of 2cell imbeddings of connected graphs on closed orientable 2manifolds. The method is applied to the wheel graphs and to the complete graphs. Congruence class genus polynomials and congruence class imbedding polynomials are introduced, to summarize important information refining the enumeration. 1. Introduction. An
Parallel remote method invocation and mbyn data redistribution
 In Proceedings of the 4th Los Alamos Computer Science Institute Symposium
, 2003
"... Components can be a useful tool in software development, including the development of scientific computing applications. Many scientific applications require parallel execution, but commodity component models based on Remote Method Invocation (RMI) do not directly support the notion of parallel comp ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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Components can be a useful tool in software development, including the development of scientific computing applications. Many scientific applications require parallel execution, but commodity component models based on Remote Method Invocation (RMI) do not directly support the notion of parallel components. Parallel components raise questions about the semantics of method invocations and the mechanics of parallel data redistribution involving these components. Allowing parallel components to exist within a component framework comes at very little extra cost to the framework designer. However, the interaction semantics (i.e. method invocations) between two parallel components or between a parallel and nonparallel component can be complex and should require support from the underlying runtime system. The parallel data redistribution problem comes about when in order to increase efficiency, data is subdivided among cooperating parallel tasks within one component. When two or more components of this type are required to perform a separate computation on the same data, this data distribution must be decoded and mapped from the first component to the second component's specification. We demonstrate a method to handle parallel method invocation and perform automatic data redistribution using the code generation process of an interface definition language (IDL) compiler. The generated code and runtime system accomplish the necessary data transfers and provide consistent behavior to method invocation. We describe the implementation of and semantics of Parallel Remote Method Invocation (PRMI). We describe how collective
Spaceefficient evaluation of hypergeometric series
 SIGSAM Bulletin, Communications in Computer Algebra
"... Many important constants, such as e and Apéry’s constant ζ(3), can be approximated by a truncated hypergeometric series. The evaluation of such series to high precision has traditionally been done by binary splitting followed by fixedpoint division. However, the numerator and the denominator comput ..."
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Many important constants, such as e and Apéry’s constant ζ(3), can be approximated by a truncated hypergeometric series. The evaluation of such series to high precision has traditionally been done by binary splitting followed by fixedpoint division. However, the numerator and the denominator computed by binary splitting usually contain a very large common factor. In this paper, we apply standard computer algebra techniques including modular computation and rational reconstruction to overcome the shortcomings of the binary splitting method. The space complexity of our algorithm is the same as a bound on the size of the reduced numerator and denominator of the series approximation. Moreover, if the predicted bound is small, the time complexity is better than the standard binary splitting approach. Our approach allows a series to be evaluated to a higher precision without additional memory. We show that when our algorithm is applied to compute ζ(3), the memory requirement is significantly reduced compared to the binary splitting approach. 1
Abstract A Novel Mutual Authentication Scheme Based on Quadratic Residues for RFID Systems
"... In 2004, Ari Juels [1] proposed a YokingProofs protocol for RFID systems. The aim is to permit tags to generate a proof which is verifiable offline by a trusted entity even when the readers are potentially untrusted. However, we find that their protocol not only doesn’t possess the anonymity prope ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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In 2004, Ari Juels [1] proposed a YokingProofs protocol for RFID systems. The aim is to permit tags to generate a proof which is verifiable offline by a trusted entity even when the readers are potentially untrusted. However, we find that their protocol not only doesn’t possess the anonymity property but also suffers from both of the offline and replay attacks. In 2006, Kirk H.M. Wong et al. [3] proposed an authentication scheme on RFID passive tags, attempting to as a standard for apparel products. Yet, to our view, their protocol suffers from the knownplaintext attack. In this paper, we first point out the weaknesses in the two above mentioned protocols. Then, we propose a novel efficient scheme which not only can achieve the mutual authentication between the server and tag but also possess the anonymity property needed in a RFID system.
René Schoof’s Algorithm for Determining the Order of the Group of Points on an Elliptic Curve over a Finite Field
, 2006
"... Elliptic curves have a rich mathematical history dating back to Diophantus (c. 250 C.E.), who used a form of these cubic equations to find right triangles of integer area with rational sides. In more recent times the deep mathematics of elliptic curves was used by Andrew Wiles et. al., to construct ..."
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Elliptic curves have a rich mathematical history dating back to Diophantus (c. 250 C.E.), who used a form of these cubic equations to find right triangles of integer area with rational sides. In more recent times the deep mathematics of elliptic curves was used by Andrew Wiles et. al., to construct a proof of Fermat's last theorem, a problem which challenged mathematicians for more than 300 years. In addition, elliptic curves over finite fields find practical application in the areas of cryptography and coding theory. For such problems, knowing the order of the group of points satisfying the elliptic curve equation is important to the security of these applications. In 1985 René Schoof published a paper [5] describing a polynomial time algorithm for solving this problem. In this thesis we explain some of the key mathematical principles that provide the basis for Schoof's method. We also present an implementation of Schoof's algorithm as a collection of Mathematica functions. The operation of each algorithm is illustrated by way of numerical examples. Acknowlegements This material was developed as part of my Master's Thesis completed at Virginia Tech in June of 2006. I am forever indebted to my advisors Charles Parry for help with number theory, Michael Williams for extensive help with Mathematica and expecially to Ezra Brown who inspired this project and supported and guided me through the work. I also thank Lawrence Washington for his excellent text [7] which provided the basis for my work and for his willingness answering questions concerning Schoof's algorithm. This document represents an update of that work in which errors in my Mathematica code have been corrected, testing has been extended, and code restructuring was done to improve performance and provide compatibility with Mathematica version 6.0. 2 SchoofsAlgorithm06.nb
Heron triangles with two fixed sides
, 2008
"... In this paper, we study the function H(a,b), which associates to every pair of positive integers a and b the number of positive integers c such that the triangle of sides a,b and c is Heron, i.e., has integral area. In particular, we prove that H(p,q) ≤ 5 if p and q are primes, and that H(a,b) = 0 ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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In this paper, we study the function H(a,b), which associates to every pair of positive integers a and b the number of positive integers c such that the triangle of sides a,b and c is Heron, i.e., has integral area. In particular, we prove that H(p,q) ≤ 5 if p and q are primes, and that H(a,b) = 0 for a random choice of positive integers a and b. 1 1
A oneparameter quadraticbase version of the Baillie–PSW probable prime test
 Math. Comp
"... Abstract. The wellknown BailliePSW probable prime test is a combination of a RabinMiller test and a “true ” (i.e., with (D/n) =−1) Lucas test. Arnault mentioned in a recent paper that no precise result is known about its probability of error. Grantham recently provided a probable prime test (RQFT ..."
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Abstract. The wellknown BailliePSW probable prime test is a combination of a RabinMiller test and a “true ” (i.e., with (D/n) =−1) Lucas test. Arnault mentioned in a recent paper that no precise result is known about its probability of error. Grantham recently provided a probable prime test (RQFT) with probability of error less than 1/7710, and pointed out that the lack of counterexamples to the BailliePSW test indicates that the true probability of error may be much lower. In this paper we first define pseudoprimes and strong pseudoprimes to quadratic bases with one parameter: Tu = T mod (T 2 − uT + 1), and define the basecounting functions: B(n) =#{u:0 ≤ u<n, nis a psp(Tu)} and SB(n) =#{u:0 ≤ u<n, nis an spsp(Tu)}. Then we give explicit formulas to compute B(n) and SB(n), and prove that, for odd composites n, B(n) <n/2 and SB(n) <n/8, and point out that these are best possible. Finally, based on oneparameter quadraticbase pseudoprimes, we provide a probable prime test, called the OneParameter QuadraticBase Test (OPQBT), which passed by all primes ≥ 5 andpassedbyanoddcompositen = p r1 1 pr2 2 ···prs s (p1 <p2 < ·· · <ps odd primes) with probability of error τ(n). We give explicit formulas to compute τ(n), and prove that