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69
Basic problems in stability and design of switched systems
 IEEE Control Systems Magazine
, 1999
"... By a switched system, we mean a hybrid dynamical system consisting of a family of continuoustime subsystems and a rule that orchestrates the switching between them. This article surveys recent developments in three basic problems regarding stability and design of switched systems. These problems ar ..."
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Cited by 204 (9 self)
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By a switched system, we mean a hybrid dynamical system consisting of a family of continuoustime subsystems and a rule that orchestrates the switching between them. This article surveys recent developments in three basic problems regarding stability and design of switched systems. These problems are: stability for arbitrary switching sequences, stability for certain useful classes of switching sequences, and construction of stabilizing switching sequences. We also provide motivation for studying these problems by discussing how they arise in connection with various questions of interest in control theory and applications.
Computation of Piecewise Quadratic Lyapunov Functions for Hybrid Systems
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 1998
"... . This paper presents a computational approach to stability analysis of nonlinear and hybrid systems. The search for a piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function is formulated as a convex optimization problem in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The relation to frequency domain methods such as the cir ..."
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Cited by 151 (4 self)
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. This paper presents a computational approach to stability analysis of nonlinear and hybrid systems. The search for a piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function is formulated as a convex optimization problem in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The relation to frequency domain methods such as the circle and Popov criteria is explained. Several examples are included to demonstrate the flexibility and power of the approach. Keywords. Piecewise linear systems, Lyapunov stability, linear matrix inequalities. 1. Introduction Construction of Lyapunov functions is one of the most fundamental problems in systems theory. The most direct application is stability analysis, but analogous problems appear more or less implicitly also in performance analysis, controller synthesis and system identification. Consequently, methods for constructing Lyapunov functions for general nonlinear systems is of great theoretical and practical interest. The objective of this paper is to develop a uniform and compu...
Perspectives and Results on the Stability and Stabilizability of Hybrid Systems
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2000
"... This paper introduces the concept of a hybrid system and some of the challenges associated with the stability of such systems, including the issues of guaranteeing stability of switched stable systems and finding conditions for the existence of switched controllers for stabilizing switched unstable ..."
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Cited by 113 (2 self)
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This paper introduces the concept of a hybrid system and some of the challenges associated with the stability of such systems, including the issues of guaranteeing stability of switched stable systems and finding conditions for the existence of switched controllers for stabilizing switched unstable systems. In this endeavor, this paper surveys the major results in the (Lyapunov) stability of finitedimensional hybrid systems and then discusses the stronger, more specialized results of switched linear (stable and unstable) systems. A section detailing how some of the results can be formulated as linear matrix inequalities is given. Stability analyses on the regulation of the angle of attack of an aircraft and on the PI control of a vehicle with an automatic transmission are given. Other examples are included to illustrate various results in this paper.
Observability and Controllability of Piecewise Affine and Hybrid Systems
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 1999
"... In this pap e we prove in a constructive way, the ee ale b e we e pie a#ne syste and a broad class of hybridsyste de e d by inte line dynamics, automata, and propositional logic. By focusing our inveon the forme class, we show through countethat obse ability and controllability prope rtie cannot b ..."
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Cited by 92 (14 self)
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In this pap e we prove in a constructive way, the ee ale b e we e pie a#ne syste and a broad class of hybridsyste de e d by inte line dynamics, automata, and propositional logic. By focusing our inveon the forme class, we show through countethat obse ability and controllability prope rtie cannot be e asilydely from those of the comp tline subsyste Inste we propose practical nume te base onmixe te line programming. Keywords Hybrid syste controllability,obse ability, pie line syste pie a#ne syste mixe teline programming I. Introducti In recent yearsb oth control and computer science haveb een attractedb y hybridsystem [1], [2], [23], [25], [26],b ecause they provide a unified framework fordescribgARB( cesses evolving accordingto continuous dynamics, discrete dynamics, and logic rules. The interest is mainly motivatedb y the large variety of practical situations, for instance realtime systems, where physical processes interact with digital controllers. Several modelingformalisms h...
Stability theory for hybrid dynamical systems
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 1998
"... Abstract — Hybrid systems which are capable of exhibiting simultaneously several kinds of dynamic behavior in different parts of a system (e.g., continuoustime dynamics, discretetime dynamics, jump phenomena, switching and logic commands, and the like) are of great current interest. In the present ..."
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Cited by 90 (8 self)
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Abstract — Hybrid systems which are capable of exhibiting simultaneously several kinds of dynamic behavior in different parts of a system (e.g., continuoustime dynamics, discretetime dynamics, jump phenomena, switching and logic commands, and the like) are of great current interest. In the present paper we first formulate a model for hybrid dynamical systems which covers a very large class of systems and which is suitable for the qualitative analysis of such systems. Next, we introduce the notion of an invariant set (e.g., equilibrium) for hybrid dynamical systems and we define several types of (Lyapunovlike) stability concepts for an invariant set. We then establish sufficient conditions for uniform stability, uniform asymptotic stability, exponential stability, and instability of an invariant set of hybrid dynamical systems. Under some mild additional assumptions, we also establish necessary conditions for some of the above stability types (converse theorems). In addition to the above, we also establish sufficient conditions for the uniform boundedness of the motions of hybrid dynamical systems (Lagrange stability). To demonstrate the applicability of the developed theory, we present specific examples of hybrid dynamical systems and we conduct a stability analysis of some of these examples (a class of sampleddata feedback control systems with a nonlinear (continuoustime) plant and a linear (discretetime) controller, and a class of systems with impulse effects). Index Terms — Asymptotic stability, boundedness, dynamical system, equilibrium, exponential stability, hybrid, hybrid dynamical
Control Using LogicBased Switching
 Trends in Control: A European Perspective
, 1998
"... this paper is to give a brief tutorial review of four different classes of hybrid systems of this type  each consists of a continuoustime process to be controlled, a parameterized family of candidate controllers, and an event driven switching logic. Three of the logics, called prerouted switching, ..."
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Cited by 66 (19 self)
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this paper is to give a brief tutorial review of four different classes of hybrid systems of this type  each consists of a continuoustime process to be controlled, a parameterized family of candidate controllers, and an event driven switching logic. Three of the logics, called prerouted switching, hysteresis switching and dwelltime switching respectively, are simple strategies capable of determining in real time which candidate controller should be put in feedback with a process in order to achieve desired closedloop performance. The fourth, called cyclic switching, has been devised to solve the longstanding stabilizability problem which arises in the synthesis of identifierbased adaptive controllers because of the existence of points in parameter space where the estimated model upon which certainty equivalence synthesis is based, loses stabilizability
Stability And Robustness For Hybrid Systems
, 1996
"... Stability and robustness issues for hybrid systems are considered in this paper. General stability results that are extensions of classical Lyapunov theory have recently been formulated. However, these results are in general not straightforward to apply due to the following reasons. First, a search ..."
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Cited by 59 (6 self)
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Stability and robustness issues for hybrid systems are considered in this paper. General stability results that are extensions of classical Lyapunov theory have recently been formulated. However, these results are in general not straightforward to apply due to the following reasons. First, a search for multiple Lyapunov functions must be performed. However, existing theory does not unveil how to find such functions. Secondly, if the most general stability result is applied, knowledge about the continuous trajectory is required, at least at some time instants. Because of these drawbacks stronger conditions for stability are suggested, in which case it is shown that the search for Lyapunov functions can be formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem for hybrid systems consisting of linear subsystems. Additionally, it is shown how robustness properties can be achieved when the Lyapunov functions are given. Specifically, it is described how to determine permitted switch regions ...
Discrete event simulation of hybrid systems
 SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing
, 2004
"... Abstract. This paper describes the quantization–based integration methods and extends their use to the simulation ofhybrid systems. Using the fact that these methods approximate ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and differential algebraic equations (DAEs) by discrete event systems, it is shown ..."
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Cited by 38 (13 self)
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Abstract. This paper describes the quantization–based integration methods and extends their use to the simulation ofhybrid systems. Using the fact that these methods approximate ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and differential algebraic equations (DAEs) by discrete event systems, it is shown how hybrid systems can be approximated by pure discrete event simulation models (within the DEVS formalism framework). In this way, the treatment and detection of events representing discontinuities –which constitute an important problem for classic ODE solvers – is notably simplified. It can be also seen that the main advantages ofquantization–based methods (error control, reduction ofcomputational costs, possibilities ofparallelization, sparsity exploitation, etc.) are still verified in the presence ofdiscontinuities. Finally, some examples which illustrate the use and the advantages ofthe methodology in hybrid systems are discussed.
Stability criteria for switched and hybrid systems
 SIAM Review
, 2007
"... The study of the stability properties of switched and hybrid systems gives rise to a number of interesting and challenging mathematical problems. The objective of this paper is to outline some of these problems, to review progress made in solving these problems in a number of diverse communities, an ..."
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Cited by 35 (4 self)
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The study of the stability properties of switched and hybrid systems gives rise to a number of interesting and challenging mathematical problems. The objective of this paper is to outline some of these problems, to review progress made in solving these problems in a number of diverse communities, and to review some problems that remain open. An important contribution of our work is to bring together material from several areas of research and to present results in a unified manner. We begin our review by relating the stability problem for switched linear systems and a class of linear differential inclusions. Closely related to the concept of stability are the notions of exponential growth rates and converse Lyapunov theorems, both of which are discussed in detail. In particular, results on common quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise linear Lyapunov functions are presented, as they represent constructive methods for proving stability, and also represent problems in which significant progress has been made. We also comment on the inherent difficulty of determining stability of switched systems in general which is exemplified by NPhardness and undecidability results. We then proceed by considering the stability of switched systems in which there are constraints on the switching rules, through both dwell time requirements and state dependent switching laws. Also in this case the theory of Lyapunov functions and the existence of converse theorems is reviewed. We briefly comment on the classical Lur’e problem and on the theory of stability radii, both of which contain many of the features of switched systems and are rich sources of practical results on the topic. Finally we present a list of questions and open problems which provide motivation for continued research in this area.
Stabilization of SecondOrder LTI Switched Systems
, 1999
"... In this paper, the problem of asymptotically stabilizing switched systems consisting of secondorder LTI subsystems is studied and solved. In particular, necessary and suÆcient stabilizability conditions are derived and a design procedure to construct stabilizing switching laws is introduced. Switch ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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In this paper, the problem of asymptotically stabilizing switched systems consisting of secondorder LTI subsystems is studied and solved. In particular, necessary and suÆcient stabilizability conditions are derived and a design procedure to construct stabilizing switching laws is introduced. Switching is needed for the stabilization of a switched system if none of its subsystems is stable. Switched systems consisting of subsystems with unstable foci are studied rst and stabilizing conic switching control laws for such systems are introduced. In particular, necessary and suÆcient conditions for asymptotic stabilizability are derived for such systems. This result is then extended to switched systems with unstable nodes and saddle points. If a switched system is asymptotically stabilizable, then using the conic switching approach introduced earlier, asymptotically stabilizing switching control laws can be obtained. Furthermore, the conic switching laws derived in the paper are shown to ...