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Nagaraj, Density of Carmichael numbers with three prime factors
 Math.Comp.66 (1997), 1705–1708. MR 98d:11110
"... Abstract. We get an upper bound of O(x 5/14+o(1) ) on the number of Carmichael numbers ≤ x with exactly three prime factors. 1. ..."
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Abstract. We get an upper bound of O(x 5/14+o(1) ) on the number of Carmichael numbers ≤ x with exactly three prime factors. 1.
On using Carmichael numbers for public key encryption systems
, 1997
"... We show that the inadvertent use of a Carmichael number instead of a prime factor in the modulus of an RSA cryptosystem is likely to make the system fatally vulnerable, but that such numbers may be detected. ..."
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We show that the inadvertent use of a Carmichael number instead of a prime factor in the modulus of an RSA cryptosystem is likely to make the system fatally vulnerable, but that such numbers may be detected.
A oneparameter quadraticbase version of the Baillie–PSW probable prime test
 Math. Comp
"... Abstract. The wellknown BailliePSW probable prime test is a combination of a RabinMiller test and a “true ” (i.e., with (D/n) =−1) Lucas test. Arnault mentioned in a recent paper that no precise result is known about its probability of error. Grantham recently provided a probable prime test (RQFT ..."
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Abstract. The wellknown BailliePSW probable prime test is a combination of a RabinMiller test and a “true ” (i.e., with (D/n) =−1) Lucas test. Arnault mentioned in a recent paper that no precise result is known about its probability of error. Grantham recently provided a probable prime test (RQFT) with probability of error less than 1/7710, and pointed out that the lack of counterexamples to the BailliePSW test indicates that the true probability of error may be much lower. In this paper we first define pseudoprimes and strong pseudoprimes to quadratic bases with one parameter: Tu = T mod (T 2 − uT + 1), and define the basecounting functions: B(n) =#{u:0 ≤ u<n, nis a psp(Tu)} and SB(n) =#{u:0 ≤ u<n, nis an spsp(Tu)}. Then we give explicit formulas to compute B(n) and SB(n), and prove that, for odd composites n, B(n) <n/2 and SB(n) <n/8, and point out that these are best possible. Finally, based on oneparameter quadraticbase pseudoprimes, we provide a probable prime test, called the OneParameter QuadraticBase Test (OPQBT), which passed by all primes ≥ 5 andpassedbyanoddcompositen = p r1 1 pr2 2 ···prs s (p1 <p2 < ·· · <ps odd primes) with probability of error τ(n). We give explicit formulas to compute τ(n), and prove that
Finding strong pseudoprimes to several bases. II,Math
 Department of Mathematics, Anhui Normal University
"... Abstract. Define ψm to be the smallest strong pseudoprime to all the first m prime bases. If we know the exact value of ψm, we will have, for integers n<ψm, a deterministic efficient primality testing algorithm which is easy to implement. Thanks to Pomerance et al. and Jaeschke, the ψm are known for ..."
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Abstract. Define ψm to be the smallest strong pseudoprime to all the first m prime bases. If we know the exact value of ψm, we will have, for integers n<ψm, a deterministic efficient primality testing algorithm which is easy to implement. Thanks to Pomerance et al. and Jaeschke, the ψm are known for 1 ≤ m ≤ 8. Upper bounds for ψ9,ψ10 and ψ11 were first given by Jaeschke, and those for ψ10 and ψ11 were then sharpened by the first author in his previous paper (Math. Comp. 70 (2001), 863–872). In this paper, we first follow the first author’s previous work to use biquadratic residue characters and cubic residue characters as main tools to tabulate all strong pseudoprimes (spsp’s) n < 1024 to the first five or six prime bases, which have the form n = pq with p, q odd primes and q − 1= k(p−1),k =4/3, 5/2, 3/2, 6; then we tabulate all Carmichael numbers < 1020, to the first six prime bases up to 13, which have the form n = q1q2q3 with each prime factor qi ≡ 3 mod 4. There are in total 36 such Carmichael numbers, 12 numbers of which are also spsp’s to base 17; 5 numbers are spsp’s to bases 17 and 19; one number is an spsp to the first 11 prime bases up to 31. As a result the upper bounds for ψ9,ψ10 and ψ11 are lowered from 20 and 22decimaldigit numbers to a 19decimaldigit number: ψ9 ≤ ψ10 ≤ ψ11 ≤ Q11 = 3825 12305 65464 13051 (19 digits) = 149491 · 747451 · 34233211. We conjecture that ψ9 = ψ10 = ψ11 = 3825 12305 65464 13051, and give reasons to support this conjecture. The main idea for finding these Carmichael numbers is that we loop on the largest prime factor q3 and propose necessary conditions on n to be a strong pseudoprime to the first 5 prime bases. Comparisons of effectiveness with Arnault’s, Bleichenbacher’s, Jaeschke’s, and Pinch’s methods for finding (Carmichael) numbers with three prime factors, which are strong pseudoprimes to the first several prime bases, are given. 1.
The Pseudoprimes up to 10^13
, 1995
"... . There are 38975 Fermat pseudoprimes (base 2) up to 10 11 , 101629 up to 10 12 and 264239 up to 10 13 : we describe the calculations and give some statistics. The numbers were generated by a variety of strategies, the most important being a backtracking search for possible prime factorisatio ..."
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. There are 38975 Fermat pseudoprimes (base 2) up to 10 11 , 101629 up to 10 12 and 264239 up to 10 13 : we describe the calculations and give some statistics. The numbers were generated by a variety of strategies, the most important being a backtracking search for possible prime factorisations, and the computations checked by a sieving technique. 1 Introduction A (Fermat) pseudoprime (base 2) is a composite number N with the property that 2 N \Gamma1 j 1 mod N . For background on pseudoprimes and primality tests in general we refer to Bressoud [1], Brillhart et al [2], Koblitz [4], Ribenboim [12] and [13] or Riesel [14]. Previous tables of pseudoprimes were computed by Pomerance, Selfridge and Wagstaff [11]. We have shown that there are 38975 pseudoprimes up to 10 11 , 101629 up to 10 12 and 264239 up to 10 13 ; all have at most 9 prime factors. Let P (X) denote the number of pseudoprimes less than X and let P (d; X) denote the number with exactly d prime factors. In ...
NOTES ON SOME NEW KINDS OF PSEUDOPRIMES
"... Abstract. J. Browkin defined in his recent paper (Math. Comp. 73 (2004), pp. 1031–1037) some new kinds of pseudoprimes, called Sylow ppseudoprimes and elementary Abelian ppseudoprimes. He gave examples of strong pseudoprimes to many bases which are not Sylow ppseudoprime to two bases only, where ..."
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Abstract. J. Browkin defined in his recent paper (Math. Comp. 73 (2004), pp. 1031–1037) some new kinds of pseudoprimes, called Sylow ppseudoprimes and elementary Abelian ppseudoprimes. He gave examples of strong pseudoprimes to many bases which are not Sylow ppseudoprime to two bases only, where p = 2 or 3. In this paper, in contrast to Browkin’s examples, we give facts and examples which are unfavorable for Browkin’s observation to detect compositeness of odd composite numbers. In Section 2, we tabulate and compare counts of numbers in several sets of pseudoprimes and find that most strong pseudoprimes are also Sylow 2pseudoprimes to the same bases. In Section 3, we give examples of Sylow ppseudoprimes to the first several prime bases for the first several primes p. We especially give an example of a strong pseudoprime to the first six prime bases, which is a Sylow ppseudoprime to the same bases for all p ∈{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13}. In Section 4, we define n to be a kfold Carmichael Sylow pseudoprime, ifitisaSylowppseudoprime to all bases prime to n for all the first k smallest odd prime factors p of n − 1. We find and tabulate all three 3fold Carmichael Sylow pseudoprimes < 1016. In Section 5, we define a positive odd composite n to be a Sylow uniform pseudoprime to bases b1,...,bk, or a Sylupsp(b1,...,bk) for short, if it is a Sylppsp(b1,...,bk) for all the first ω(n − 1) − 1 small prime factors p of n − 1, where ω(n − 1) is the number of distinct prime factors of n − 1. We find and tabulate all the 17 Sylupsp(2, 3, 5)’s < 1016 and some Sylupsp(2, 3, 5, 7, 11)’s < 1024. Comparisons of effectiveness of Browkin’s observation with Miller tests to detect compositeness of odd composite numbers are given in Section 6. 1.
The Carmichael Numbers up to 10^16
 Math. Comp
, 1993
"... We extend our previous computations to show that there are 246683 Carmichael numbers up to 10 16 . As before, the numbers were generated by a backtracking search for possible prime factorisations together with a "large prime variation". We present further statistics on the distribution of Carmich ..."
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We extend our previous computations to show that there are 246683 Carmichael numbers up to 10 16 . As before, the numbers were generated by a backtracking search for possible prime factorisations together with a "large prime variation". We present further statistics on the distribution of Carmichael numbers. 1.