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54
Shortest Path Algorithms in Transportation Models: Classical and Innovative Aspects
, 1998
"... Shortest Path Problems are among the most studied network flow optimization problems, with interesting applications in various fields. One such field is transportation, where shortest path problems of different kinds need to be solved. Due to the nature of the application, transportation scientists ..."
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Cited by 54 (3 self)
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Shortest Path Problems are among the most studied network flow optimization problems, with interesting applications in various fields. One such field is transportation, where shortest path problems of different kinds need to be solved. Due to the nature of the application, transportation scientists need very flexible and efficient shortest path procedures, both from the running time point of view, and also for the memory requirements. Since no "best" algorithm currently exists for every kind of transportation problem, research in this field has recently moved to the design and implementation of "ad hoc" shortest path procedures, which are able to capture the peculiarities of the problems under consideration. The aim of this work is to present in a unifying framework both the main algorithmic approaches that have been proposed in the past years for solving the shortest path problems arising most frequently in the transportation field, and also some important implementation techniques ...
Airline Crew Scheduling: A New Formulation and Decomposition Algorithm
 Operations Research
, 1995
"... Airline crew scheduling is concerned with finding a minimum cost assignment of flight crews to a given flight schedule while satisfying restrictions dictated by collective bargaining agreements and the Federal Aviation Administration. Traditionally, the problem has been modeled as a set partitioning ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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Airline crew scheduling is concerned with finding a minimum cost assignment of flight crews to a given flight schedule while satisfying restrictions dictated by collective bargaining agreements and the Federal Aviation Administration. Traditionally, the problem has been modeled as a set partitioning problem. In this paper, we present a new model based on breaking the decision process into two stages. In the first stage we select a set of duty periods that cover the flights in the schedule. Then, in the second stage, we attempt to build pairings using those duty periods. We suggest a decomposition approach for solving the model and present computational results for test problems provided by a major carrier. Our formulation provides a tighter linear programming bound than that of the conventional set partitioning formulation but is more difficult to solve. 1 Introduction In this paper we present a new formulation and decomposition approach for the airline crew scheduling problem. The ...
Parallelization of the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows
, 2001
"... Routing with time windows (VRPTW) has been an area of research that have
attracted many researchers within the last 10 { 15 years. In this period a number
of papers and technical reports have been published on the exact solution of the
VRPTW.
The VRPTW is a generalization of the wellknown capacitat ..."
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Cited by 27 (1 self)
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Routing with time windows (VRPTW) has been an area of research that have
attracted many researchers within the last 10 { 15 years. In this period a number
of papers and technical reports have been published on the exact solution of the
VRPTW.
The VRPTW is a generalization of the wellknown capacitated routing problem
(VRP or CVRP). In the VRP a
eet of vehicles must visit (service) a number
of customers. All vehicles start and end at the depot. For each pair of customers
or customer and depot there is a cost. The cost denotes how much is costs a
vehicle to drive from one customer to another. Every customer must be visited
exactly ones. Additionally each customer demands a certain quantity of goods
delivered (know as the customer demand). For the vehicles we have an upper
limit on the amount of goods that can be carried (known as the capacity). In
the most basic case all vehicles are of the same type and hence have the same
capacity. The problem is now for a given scenario to plan routes for the vehicles
in accordance with the mentioned constraints such that the cost accumulated
on the routes, the #12;xed costs (how much does it cost to maintain a vehicle) or
a combination hereof is minimized.
In the more general VRPTW each customer has a time window, and between
all pairs of customers or a customer and the depot we have a travel time. The
vehicles now have to comply with the additional constraint that servicing of the
customers can only be started within the time windows of the customers. It
is legal to arrive before a time window \opens" but the vehicle must wait and
service will not start until the time window of the customer actually opens.
For solving the problem exactly 4 general types of solution methods have
evolved in the literature: dynamic programming, DantzigWolfe (column generation),
Lagrange decomposition and solving the classical model formulation
directly.
Presently the algorithms that uses DantzigWolfe given the best results
(Desrochers, Desrosiers and Solomon, and Kohl), but the Ph.D. thesis of Kontoravdis
shows promising results for using the classical model formulation directly.
In this Ph.D. project we have used the DantzigWolfe method. In the
DantzigWolfe method the problem is split into two problems: a \master problem"
and a \subproblem". The master problem is a relaxed set partitioning
v
vi
problem that guarantees that each customer is visited exactly ones, while the
subproblem is a shortest path problem with additional constraints (capacity and
time window). Using the master problem the reduced costs are computed for
each arc, and these costs are then used in the subproblem in order to generate
routes from the depot and back to the depot again. The best (improving) routes
are then returned to the master problem and entered into the relaxed set partitioning
problem. As the set partitioning problem is relaxed by removing the
integer constraints the solution is seldomly integral therefore the DantzigWolfe
method is embedded in a separationbased solutiontechnique.
In this Ph.D. project we have been trying to exploit structural properties in
order to speed up execution times, and we have been using parallel computers
to be able to solve problems faster or solve larger problems.
The thesis starts with a review of previous work within the #12;eld of VRPTW
both with respect to heuristic solution methods and exact (optimal) methods.
Through a series of experimental tests we seek to de#12;ne and examine a number
of structural characteristics.
The #12;rst series of tests examine the use of dividing time windows as the
branching principle in the separationbased solutiontechnique. Instead of using
the methods previously described in the literature for dividing a problem into
smaller problems we use a methods developed for a variant of the VRPTW. The
results are unfortunately not positive.
Instead of dividing a problem into two smaller problems and try to solve
these we can try to get an integer solution without having to branch. A cut is an
inequality that separates the (nonintegral) optimal solution from all the integer
solutions. By #12;nding and inserting cuts we can try to avoid branching. For the
VRPTW Kohl has developed the 2path cuts. In the separationalgorithm for
detecting 2path cuts a number of test are made. By structuring the order in
which we try to generate cuts we achieved very positive results.
In the DantzigWolfe process a large number of columns may be generated,
but a signi#12;cant fraction of the columns introduced will not be interesting with
respect to the master problem. It is a priori not possible to determine which
columns are attractive and which are not, but if a column does not become part
of the basis of the relaxed set partitioning problem we consider it to be of no
bene#12;t for the solution process. These columns are subsequently removed from
the master problem. Experiments demonstrate a signi#12;cant cut of the running
time.
Positive results were also achieved by stopping the routegeneration process
prematurely in the case of timeconsuming shortest path computations. Often
this leads to stopping the shortest path subroutine in cases where the information
(from the dual variables) leads to \bad" routes. The premature exit
from the shortest path subroutine restricts the generation of \bad" routes signi
#12;cantly. This produces very good results and has made it possible to solve
problem instances not solved to optimality before.
The parallel algorithm is based upon the sequential DantzigWolfe based
algorithm developed earlier in the project. In an initial (sequential) phase unsolved
problems are generated and when there are unsolved problems enough
vii
to start work on every processor the parallel solution phase is initiated. In the
parallel phase each processor runs the sequential algorithm. To get a good workload
a strategy based on balancing the load between neighbouring processors is
implemented. The resulting algorithm is eÆcient and capable of attaining good
speedup values. The loadbalancing strategy shows an even distribution of work
among the processors. Due to the large demand for using the IBM SP2 parallel
computer at UNI#15;C it has unfortunately not be possible to run as many tests
as we would have liked. We have although managed to solve one problem not
solved before using our parallel algorithm.
Current trends in deterministic scheduling
 ANNALS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
, 1997
"... Scheduling is concerned with allocating limited resources to tasks to optimize certain objective functions. Due to the popularity of the Total Quality Management concept, ontime delivery of jobs has become one of the crucial factors for customer satisfaction. Scheduling plays an important role in ac ..."
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Cited by 27 (1 self)
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Scheduling is concerned with allocating limited resources to tasks to optimize certain objective functions. Due to the popularity of the Total Quality Management concept, ontime delivery of jobs has become one of the crucial factors for customer satisfaction. Scheduling plays an important role in achieving this goal. Recent developments in scheduling theory have focused on extending the models to include more practical constraints. Furthermore, due to the complexity studies conducted during the last two decades, it is now widely understood that most practical problems are NPhard. This is one of the reasons why local search methods have been studied so extensively during the last decade. In this paper, we review briefly some of the recent extensions of scheduling theory, the recent developments in local search techniques and the new developments of scheduling in practice. Particularly, we survey two recent extensions of theory: scheduling with a 1jobonrmachine pattern and machine scheduling with availability constraints. We also review several local search techniques, including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and constraint guided heuristic search. Finally, we study the robotic cell scheduling problem, the automated guided vehicles scheduling problem, and the hoist scheduling problem.
Solving a Practical Pickup and Delivery Problem
 Transportation Science
, 2001
"... We consider a pickup and delivery vehicle routing problem commonly encountered in realworld logistics operations. The problem involves a set of practical complications that have received little attention in the vehicle routing literature. In this problem, there are multiple carriers and multiple ve ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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We consider a pickup and delivery vehicle routing problem commonly encountered in realworld logistics operations. The problem involves a set of practical complications that have received little attention in the vehicle routing literature. In this problem, there are multiple carriers and multiple vehicle types available to cover a set of pickup and delivery orders, each of which has multiple pickup time windows and multiple delivery time windows. Orders and carrier/vehicle types must satisfy a set of compatibility constraints that specify which orders cannot be covered by which carrier/vehicle types and which orders cannot be shipped together. Order loading and unloading sequence must satisfy the nested precedence constraint that requires that an order cannot be unloaded until all the orders loaded into the truck later than this order are unloaded. Each vehicle trip must satisfy the driver's work rules prescribed by the Department of Transportation which specify legal working hours of ...
A Heuristic BranchandPrice Approach for the Airline Crew Pairing Problem
, 1997
"... We describe a methodology for finding nearoptimal solutions to airline crew pairing problems. We use a dynamic column generation scheme to identify crew work schedules combined with a customized branchandbound procedure that allows column generation to be performed at each node of the search tree ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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We describe a methodology for finding nearoptimal solutions to airline crew pairing problems. We use a dynamic column generation scheme to identify crew work schedules combined with a customized branchandbound procedure that allows column generation to be performed at each node of the search tree. Our approach provides an approximation to optimality since we only solve the column generation subproblems approximately and we do not necessarily consider all of the unexplored nodes in the search. We present computational results for both a research implementation and a production implementation of the algorithm on test problems from a major domestic carrier. We test the influence of various algorithmic design choices with the research implementation. These results were used to build a production implementation capable of finding good solutions to problem instances with over 2000 flight legs. June 23, 1997 0 This research has been supported by the following grants and contracts: NSF G...
A Parallel CuttingPlane Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem With Time Windows
, 1999
"... In the vehicle routing problem with time windows a number of identical vehicles must be routed to and from a depot to cover a given set of customers, each of whom has a specified time interval indicating when they are available for service. Each customer also has a known demand, and a vehicle may on ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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In the vehicle routing problem with time windows a number of identical vehicles must be routed to and from a depot to cover a given set of customers, each of whom has a specified time interval indicating when they are available for service. Each customer also has a known demand, and a vehicle may only serve the customers on a route if the total demand does not exceed the capacity of the vehicle. The most effective solution method proposed to date for this problem is due to Kohl, Desrosiers, Madsen, Solomon, and Soumis. Their algorithm uses a cuttingplane approach followed by a branchand bound search with column generation, where the columns of the LP relaxation represent routes of individual vehicles. We describe a new implementation of their method, using Karger's randomized minimumcut algorithm to generate cutting planes. The standard benchmark in this area is a set of 87 problem instances generated in 1984 by M. Solomon; making using of parallel processing in both the cuttingpla...
Lagrangian Relaxation and Enumeration for Solving Constrained
 ShortestPath Problems, Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School
, 2003
"... Recently published research indicates that a vertexlabeling algorithm based on dynamicprogramming concepts is the most efficient procedure available for solving constrained shortestpath problems (CSPPs), i.e., shortestpath problems with one or more side constraints on the total “weight ” of the ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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Recently published research indicates that a vertexlabeling algorithm based on dynamicprogramming concepts is the most efficient procedure available for solving constrained shortestpath problems (CSPPs), i.e., shortestpath problems with one or more side constraints on the total “weight ” of the optimal path. However, we investigate an alternative procedure that Lagrangianises the side constraints, optimises the resulting Lagrangian function and then closes any duality gap through enumeration of nearshortest paths. These paths are measured with respect to Lagrangianmodified edge lengths, and “nearshortest ” implies ɛoptimal, with ɛ equal to the duality gap. Our recently developed procedure for enumerating nearshortestpaths leads to an algorithm for CSPP that, empirically, proves to be an order of magnitude faster than the most recent vertexlabeling algorithm. 1
Creating very large scale neighborhoods out of smaller ones by compounding moves: A study on the vehicle routing problem
, 2002
"... paper also can be downloaded without charge from the ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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paper also can be downloaded without charge from the
Minimum Time and Minimum Cost Path Problems in Street Networks With Periodic Traffic Lights
"... This paper investigates minimum time and minimum cost path problems in street networks regulated by periodic traffic lights. We show that the minimum time path problem is polynomially solvable. On the other hand, minimum cost path problems are generally NPhard. Special, realistic, cases which are ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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This paper investigates minimum time and minimum cost path problems in street networks regulated by periodic traffic lights. We show that the minimum time path problem is polynomially solvable. On the other hand, minimum cost path problems are generally NPhard. Special, realistic, cases which are polynomially solvable are discussed. Dynamic shortest path problems often arise in transportation applications. Several models have been defined and analyzed depending on the properties of the travel time and of the cost functions (e.g., continuous or discrete), on the possibility of waiting at the nodes (e.g., no waiting, waiting at each node, waiting only at the origin nodes), on the presence of time windows associated with the nodes, etc. For more details about shortest path problems in dynamic transportation networks, see KIRBY and POTTS (1969); DESROSIERS, PELLETIER and SOUMIS (1983); ORDA<